What's New . . .
Check back for regular updates on subjects covered in the Academic Exchange and other matters of interest to Emory faculty.


 

Ethics Center Director Appointed to State Board of Medical Examiners

Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue has appointed Kathy Kinlaw, Acting Director of the Center for Ethics, as Public-at-Large Representative to the Georgia Composite State Board of Medical Examiners. Kinlaw will serve as the only non-physician representative on this thirteen-member board.

The mission of this independent executive agency is “to protect the health of Georgians through the proper licensing of physicians and certain members of the healing arts and through the objective enforcement of the Medical Practice Act.”

The board focuses on issues of education, training and professional conduct in its responsibility for licensing standards for physicians, physician's assistants, respiratory care professionals, acupuncturists, clinical perfusionists, and physician residents in training. The Composite Board also investigates complaints from consumers and reviews malpractice settlements and information from hospitals and other state medical boards.


Psychologist Kaslow receives National Award from APA

Nadine Kaslow, professor of psychology and chief psychologist at Grady Memorial Hospital, recently received the Presidential Citation Award from the American Psychological Association for her work in reaching out to psychology trainees and postdoctoral fellows in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

After the hurricane struck, many young psychologists were confronted with the loss of training sites where they had expected to complete internships or postdoctoral fellowships. At least five training programs were either destroyed or disrupted, resulting in terrible hardships for the patients, faculty, and trainees at those sites. Kaslow
personally called dozens of psychology training program directors across the United States and Canada to find training programs and fellowships for displaced interns and postdoctoral fellows. She received the award on February 18 during the American Psychological Association Council of Representatives Meeting in Washington, D.C.

Kaslow said the citation came as a complete surprise. “I thought the council just wanted to take a picture of me and my mother,” said Kaslow, who counseled and worked with at least seventeen predoctoral interns and five postdoctoral fellows at fourteen different sites throughout the United States and Canada to help rescue their training. “I don’t think it dawned on me until the president of the American Psychological Association started reading the plaque.

“It was such an emotional experience for me. These awards are very rare, and when your colleagues recognize you for something you did not do for an award, but because you simply wanted to help others in a time of tragedy, it is really special and meaningful.”


Emory Awarded Multi-Million Dollar Cancer Research Grant

The National Cancer Institute has awarded one of the largest lung cancer research grants—$7.5 million—in the United States to Emory’s Winship Cancer Institute. In addition, the Georgia Cancer Coalition, Georgia's public/private cancer research partnership, will provide additional financial support. 

The grant will help fund four scientific projects involving about forty researchers, clinicians, fellows, and technicians from ten departments in the health sciences. The primary goal of the collaborative project is to enhance therapeutic strategies for lung cancer.

“Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in men and women, both in the United States and worldwide,” said Fadlo Khuri, associate director of the Winship Cancer Institute and director and co-principal investigator on the grant-related research. “Despite important advances in understanding the biology of lung cancer and the introduction of several novel chemotherapy agents, five- year survival for this disease remains at a dismal 15 percent.”

Khuri noted that the project aims to improve lung cancer therapy by better understanding how the cancer cells communicate through a process called cell signaling.  Researchers will study these cell-signaling pathways and how several drugs interfere with them and the ability of cells to communicate and reproduce.

Haian Fu, associate professor of pharmacology in the School of Medicine, and also co-principal investigator, noted that the team hopes to determine the most effective course of therapy for individual patients and predict sensitivity to new and established lung cancer therapies. “By utilizing data from a large international clinical trial that studied the most effective treatment sequence of chemotherapy and surgery among lung cancer patients, we hope to develop better, more personalized therapies,” said Fu. We also hope to find new drugs that only target cancer cells and their altered signaling pathways, leaving healthy cells alone.”


Buzbee authors Supreme Court brief

William Buzbee, director of the Emory Environmental and Natural Resources Law Program, co-authored an amicus brief in the biggest environmental law cases to come before the U.S. Supreme Court since passage of the Clean Water Act thirty-three years ago. Buzbee and colleagues at Stanford University wrote the brief for an unprecedented bipartisan joint submission by four former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency administrators.

The cases are a critical test for protection of America’s rivers and wetlands as well as the reach of the federal government’s power, said Buzbee. In the consolidated cases, Carabell v. United States and Rapanos v. United States, which went before the Court on February 21, the challengers, who are real estate developers, maintain that the Clean Water Act protects only “traditional navigable” waters (those suitable for use by commercial vessels) and those wetlands and streams directly adjacent to those waterways. That position would reverse the way the Act has been applied for the last three decades, explained Buzbee.

If that happens, at least 55 to 60 percent of linear miles of U.S. rivers and waters, including fishing, recreation, and drinking water areas, would be lost to federal protection from pollution discharges. “The stakes in these cases are huge,” Buzbee said.

According to the brief, “Petitioners’ arguments to exclude non-navigable waters and their adjacent wetlands from federal regulation strike at the very heart of the nation’s water pollution control programs.” In an unusual twist, the Bush administration, environmental groups, a large number of states, and Buzbee’s former EPA administrator clients are all in agreement that federal power should be upheld. Property rights groups, developers, and a few states are taking a strong contrary view.

The second big issue in these cases, the reach of the federal government’s power over commerce, will be the first major presentation of these issues to the Supreme Court since the appointment of Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Samuel Alito.


Holocaust Denier Can’t Write Off Jail Sentence

Right-wing British historian David Irving may soon find himself behind bars, after an Austrian Court sentenced him to three years in prison for denying the Holocaust. According to the Associated Press, Irving admitted that he had denied the holocaust, which is a crime in Austria, the birthplace of Adolf Hitler.

In 2000, Irving brought a libel suit in a British Court against Emory’s Deborah Lipstadt, Dorot Professor and director of Jewish Studies, but lost after a protracted battle. The presiding judge in that case, Charles Gray, wrote that Irving was “an active Holocaust denier . . . anti-Semitic and racist.”

After pleading guilty in Austria, Irving insisted that he now acknowledges the slaughter of six million Jews. He also conceded that he had erred in contending there were no gas chambers at the Auschwitz concentration camp. He expressed sorrow “for all the innocent people who died during the Second World War.”
           
The Austrian verdict was welcomed by the Simon Wiesenthal Center, but not by Lipstadt. In an essay in the Times Higher Education Supplement (UK) on February 17, she wrote, “I support Irving's release for ideological and strategic reasons. Laws against Holocaust denial contravene the notion of free speech. Although I am not a free-speech absolutist, I have never been comfortable with censorship. The recent debate about the publication of the Danish cartoons depicting Muhammad has given added meaning to that stance. If one outlaws Holocaust denial, one can outlaw such cartoons. If one outlaws such cartoons, one can outlaw what Shiites say about Sunnis, Orthodox Jews about Reform Jews, and Baptists about Catholics. Simply put: there is no end to the matter.”
           
Irving claimed previously that Hitler knew little if anything about the Holocaust, and he has been quoted as saying there was “not one shred of evidence” the Nazis carried out their Final Solution to exterminate the Jewish population on such a massive scale. He has contended that most of those who died at concentration camps succumbed to diseases such as typhus rather than execution.
           
In his closing arguments, the state prosecutor criticized Irving for “putting on a show” and for not admitting that the Nazis killed Jews in an organized and systematic manner. He also called Irving “everything but a historian” and “a dangerous falsifier of history.” 
           
Irving appeared shocked as the sentence was read out. His lawyer said he would appeal the sentence. Irving has been in custody since his November arrest on charges stemming from two speeches he gave in Austria in 1989 in which he was accused of denying that Nazis’ killed six million Jews.
           
Irving also emphasized that the trial highlighted freedom of speech issues. “Of course it's a question of freedom of speech,” Irving said. “The law is an ass.”


Researchers Use Brain Imaging to Learn Whether Alzheimer's Can Be Detected Earlier

Emory researchers have received a $330,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other organizations to study the use of brain imaging to identify and treat Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at an earlier stage. The multi-center research trial, called the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), will focus on brain imaging studies (MRI and PET scans) and biomarker tests, together with measurements of memory, thinking, and daily functioning among three groups of volunteers.

“The goal of the study is to learn how brain imaging can be used most effectively to monitor changes in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease,” said Allan Levey, professor and chair of neurology and lead investigator of the ADNI study at Emory. “Most importantly, the study will determine if brain imaging can be used to predict which healthy elderly individuals will develop mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and which individuals with MCI will go on to develop AD.”

According to Levey, the field of aging and dementia has shifted toward trying to identify the earliest clinical signs of the process that is likely to evolve into AD. MCI has come to represent this transitional zone between the cognitive changes of normal aging and very early AD. MCI is most commonly described as a subtle but measurable memory disorder. A person with MCI has memory problems greater than normally expected with aging, but does not show other symptoms of dementia, such as impaired judgment or reasoning.

“Not all people with MCI will develop AD,” said Levey. “There are a variety of conditions that can cause MCI, including some that are reversible and others that don’t get worse over time. However, MCI is a risk factor for AD and many, but not all people with MCI, will develop AD. One of the outcomes of the study will be a better understanding of who does go on to develop AD.”

New Center to Speed Development of Innovative Patient Care Products, Procedures

Taking a lifesaving product or procedure from inspiration to innovative patient is a long, difficult path to navigate. With the establishment of the Emory Center for Device Innovation (CDI), researchers can turn to an institutionalized system to help them guide promising projects through the difficult “proof of concept” stage of development. With funding and support from the Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center, the CDI will prepare projects for outside investment, product development, and commercialization, and will also help Emory faculty protect their ideas as patentable intellectual property.

“The key mission of the center is to streamline the process at Emory so that scientific discoveries can lead to therapeutic products that benefit patients,” said Omar Lattouf, a cardiothoracic surgeon and newly appointed director of the CDI. "Emory is the right place for developing patient-focused innovations and inventions and encouraging investment in new cutting-edge technologies that will bring less invasive procedures, shorter hospital stays, and speedier recovery.”

Academic scientists and physicians have traditionally struggled to get their discoveries out of the university and into the marketplace. They often lack the entrepreneurial knowledge to negotiate the process, and many universities have no mechanism to help them develop marketable inventions. The Emory CDI will help scientists and physician/inventors bridge that gap, providing guidance and funding for specific projects at crucial stages of development, according to Michael Johns, executive vice president for health affairs at Emory and CEO of the Woodruff Health Sciences Center.

The CDI, in close collaboration with the Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech, will initially focus on one of Emory's historic strengths—cardiac and vascular devices and therapeutics—and expand into other clinical specialties and strategic scientific areas across the various disciplines of the University.

Read the AE's previous coverage of knowledge transfer issues:

"Ideas for Sale: Will technology transfer undermine the academy or save it?" (December 99/January 2000)

"No Conflict, No Interest: Ethical considerations in technology transfer" (John Banja, February/March 2000)

"Money Changes Everything: Commerce, philanthropy, and the culture of the academy" (December 02/January 03)

"For Its Own Sake: When knowledge isn't for sale" (December 2004/January 2005).



What's in a name? For Emory, almost everything

A good number of local businesses include “Emory” in their names. But if Emory, the university, has its way, that number will drop to near zero, as the school steps up efforts to protect its trademarked name. Affected merchants aren’t happy.

According to a January 12 article in the Atlanta Journal Constitution, Kent Alexander, Emory’s senior vice president and general counsel, said the policing is part of the school's overall plan to become an internationally recognized destination university. He explained that businesses that use Emory in their names can confuse customers, who might assume the two are affiliated.  

Emory’s push to protect its name is part of a trend. Princeton, for example, has taken steps to limit unauthorized use of its name. Recently, the school demanded that Merrill Lynch, the nation’s largest brokerage firm, change its plans to use the Princeton name on some of its mutual funds (NY Times, Feb 2, 2006).

“Emory is at an incredibly dynamic point in its history,” Alexander said. “When people think of Emory, we want them to think of our university and our healthcare system, not an unrelated local business or apartment complex.”

Emory began serious attempts to limit the use of its name in 2004, when the university sued Vision Correction Group Inc., a LASIK eye surgery clinic, for using the Emory name. A federal judge issued an injunction protecting Emory's trademark and prohibited the use of the name by the group.

Since then, the university has reached legal agreements with many of the dozen or so Druid Hills-area businesses using Emory in their names, though they’re not happy about having to change their identity.

Michael Smith, a veterinarian who founded Emory Animal Hospital on Clairmont Road fifteen years ago, told the AJC he hasn’t landed on a new name for his practice. Smith said he named his business after the Emory area, not the university, and was surprised when the school sent him a letter a couple of years ago. Battling an entity with Emory’s clout wasn’t an option.

Attorney Chris Kellner of Emory’s general counsel’s office said the university will continue to pursue businesses using its name. “We are going to be proactive about it,” Kellner said. “We recognize the value of the Emory name.”


Emory Faculty Member Pens Award-Winning Play, Debut Performances Scheduled

Debut performances of the award-winning play/cantata, “Children of AIDS: The Grief and The Promise,” are slated for a special Emory event. The play, written by Emory professor emeritus of pediatrics and public health, André Nahmias, features children’s voices, organ, cello and African drumming, won a first prize at an international World AIDS Day Competition in December 2005. 

The drama depicts the grief of all children whose lives are affected by HIV/AIDS, and the promise that the tools needed to solve the major problems of this global tragedy are now available. Half a million children in the world are born every year with the AIDS virus and 2.5 million have already died of AIDS. Additionally, more than ten million have become orphans because of the death of their parents from AIDS. Music for the production was written by Tamara Albrecht, Director and Instructor for the Children's Music Development Center at Emory and organist/choirmaster at St. Bede's Episcopal Church in Atlanta,

Performances will be held Friday and Saturday February 3rd and 4th at 8:00 p.m., St. Bede’s Episcopal Church, 2601 Henderson Mill Rd, NE, Atlanta (Northlake area) A reception will follow. Reservations are strongly recommended as seating is limited.

Call: 770-983-9797  Ext. 41, or email promise@stbedes.org. All donations collected during these performances will benefit  the summer “Camp High Five,” in Rutledge, Ga., for children living with HIV/AIDS. Suggested donations are $8 for adults and $4 for students.

The performance is sponsored by the Center for AIDS Research, The Children’s Music Center of Emory University, the Names Project Foundation (AIDS Memorial Quilt), the New Covenant Community Church, and St. Bede’s Episcopal Church.


Open Meetings on Position of Vice Provost and Director of Libaries

From Gray Crouse, Chair of the Vice Provost and Director of Libraries Search Advisory Committee:

The Search Advisory Committee for the Vice Provost and Director of Libraries wishes to remind you of two open meetings that will be held this week to gather thoughts from the community about the desirable characteristics of the person who fill this position. The Committee will hold open meetings January 26 (THURS) from 12-2 in room 200 White Hall and January 27 (FRI) from 4-6 in room 400 of the Administration Building. Anyone who wishes to come and share thoughts about the work of the committee is invited to come. We expect the sessions to be open and voices from the floor are welcome, but we will give priority to anyone who has made an appointment to speak.

Appointments can be made by contacting Tomeca Kanu in the office of the provost at tkanu@emory.edu 727-7134.

To read the Academic Exchange article "Library Past, Library Present," click here.


Emory Nurse Earns Book of the Year Award

Emory nurse Mary Gullatte has received the 2005 Book of the Year Award from the American Journal of Nursing (AJN).

“The AJN Book of the Year competition is the nursing profession’s premier review of the best books related to nursing and healthcare, and the announcement of the awards is an eagerly anticipated event each year,” said AJN Editor-in-Chief Diana Mason. “The books chosen represent the highest standard of excellence in writing and publishing.”

According to the AJN, Gullatte’s book, Nursing Management: Principles and Practice, provides an in-depth review of general and oncology nursing management principles to guide the practice and development of nurse leaders and managers. The text includes practice tips, guidelines, and real world examples of management tools.

The AJN is the nation’s oldest and largest circulating nursing journal and one of the most highly respected. Its Book of the Year Award competition draws hundreds of submissions by authors from various fields within nursing.

“I am truly humbled and honored to be a recipient of the 2005 AJN Book of the Year Award,” said Gullatte, Director of Nursing for Inpatient, Oncology and Transplant Services for Emory’s Winship Cancer Institute. “The textbook is a reflection of teamwork, collaboration, and commitment to the profession of nursing and the patients we serve.”

A 27-year employee of Emory University Hospital, Gullatte has served in a variety of roles, including staff nurse and various management positions. She has served on the boards of the American Cancer Society and the National Oncology Nursing Society. In 2004, she was named Nurse of the Year by the Georgia Nursing Association. She also volunteers with organizations such as the American Red Cross, American Heart Association, and the Georgia Special Olympics. Gullatte is currently pursuing doctoral studies in cancer nursing research.

“This book is a wonderful addition to both oncology nursing and the profession at large,” said Marla Salmon, Dean of the Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing. “Far too little attention has been paid to how nurse leaders can create a context that promotes good care.”


Graduate School Welcomes New Dean

Provost Earl Lewis has announced the appointment of Lisa A. Tedesco as the new Dean of the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences. Tedesco will assume the post on May 1, pending approval from the Board of Trustees

Tedesco, whom Lewis described as an accomplished scholar and administrator, has authored sixty-nine peer-reviewed articles, one book, two monographs, and twelve book chapters. As a former president of the American Association of Dental Schools, she is widely known as a social science health educator concerned with health disparities, curriculum reform, and diversity in the healthcare workforce.

For the last decade and a half she has been a member of the faculty of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where she held several key, senior administrative posts. For six years she served as Associate Dean in the Dental School. During her tenure, significant change was introduced in areas related to curriculum, pedagogy, interdisciplinary research, and the establishment of a doctoral program. From 1998-2005 Tedesco served as Vice President and Secretary of the University and as Interim Provost.

“Her broad academic and administrative experiences, involvement in issues of great national importance, and keen sense of the challenges facing higher education in the next decade make her an exciting choice to head Emory University’s graduate school,” said Lewis.

From 1981 to 1992, Tedesco was a faculty member at the State University of New York at Buffalo.  She holds a BS from the University of Bridgeport, a Masters of Education and a PhD in educational psychology from the SUNY at Buffalo. Tedesco also has held grants from the NIH, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the National Institute of Dental Research and the WK Kellogg Foundation, among other agencies. 

Tedesco is currently a fellow at the Center for Community Health Partnerships at Columbia University, and is a member of the Sullivan Alliance, an outgrowth of the Sullivan Commission (Missing Persons Report) and an Institute of Medicine Committee to address healthcare workforce diversity (In the Nation’s Compelling Interest).

Public Health Professor First to Receive National Award

David Kleinbaum, Professor of Epidemiology in the Rollins School of Public Health, has been presented with the 2005ASPH/Pfizer Award for Teaching Excellence.

“This distinguished award recognizes the importance of teaching and mentoring future leaders if we are to effectively address the public health challenges of our time,” said Stephen Shortell, Dean of the University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health and chair of the American Society of Public Health Education Committee. 

Kleinbaum received the award, along with a $10,000 cash prize, at the 2005 annual meeting of the American Public Health Association in Philadelphia on December 10. This is the inaugural year of the award, an annual honor to recognize graduate public health faculty who are notable for their teaching excellence. He was chosen from among nineteen nominees.

Kleinbaum has been a professor of public health for over three decades. In addition to his excellence as an educator, the award recognizes his work in epidemiology and his contributions to the field.  Kleinbaum is the author of the “ActiveEpi” electronic textbook, among other texts he has authored on the subject.

Kleinbaum’s reputation in the classroom is one of intelligence and humor. “He is a truly gifted instructor. In class, he is extremely effective at getting his point across to students, and by using a unique style of humor and wit, he keeps students very interested in what might normally be considered ‘dry’ subject matter,” said Allison Curry, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Epidemiology at the Rollins School of Public Health, “I have not come across a teacher thus far who has made more of an impact on me than Dr. Kleinbaum.”


Book Production in the Digital Age

To the Editor:

I thought the Academic Exchange piece on digitization (Library Past, Library Present: The age of and angst of digitization, Dec/Jan 2005) was right on target. Anyone of a certain age remembers riffling through card catalog entries and it was great that you evoked that old image. I'm a heavy user of Emory’s digital library resources. What Emory offers in online accessibility, plus what's out there from other scientific sources, has made writing a science book infinitely easier. But it was good to be reminded that for some people printed materials remain central now, and maybe always will.

Out of curiosity, I went down the list of faculty books published in 2005 that was handed out at your annual reception for Emory authors. Judging only by titles, I determined the following breakdown:

Humanities 41 percent
Social Sciences 14 percent
Natural Sciences (excluding medicine) 8 percent
Medicine 18 percent
Law 7 percent
Other (including pedagogy, business, fiction,unclassifiable from the title)
13 percent

The humanists' production of books correlates with their stated need for books, not just electronic access. For the natural scientists, book writing has always taken a back seat to producing journal articles. Of course, articles rather than books fit right into a scientific culture where digital access has come to dominate print access, as your cover story pointed out.

Sidney Perkowitz
Charles Howard Candler Professor of Physics


Library of Congress Kicks Off World Digital Library

The Library of Congress has launched a campaign to create the World Digital Library, reports the Washington Post. The project aims to produce an online collection of rare books, manuscripts, maps, posters, stamps, and other materials from its holdings and those of other national libraries that would be freely accessible for viewing by anyone with Internet access.

According to James H. Billington, head of the Library of Congress, the undertaking is the most ambitious international effort of its kind, and it will enable wide access to precious items of artistic, historical, and literary significance through the Internet. He added that his goal is to bring together materials from the United States and Europe, Islamic nations, and East and South Asia.

“We are aiming for a cooperative undertaking in which each culture can articulate its own cultural identity within a shared global undertaking,” Billington said. “We will go as far as we can. . . . The dream is that this could make a contribution, particularly among young people brought up in the multimedia age.”

The project is envisioned as a public-private partnership. Google, Inc., the first corporate contributor, has donated $3 million.

In the past year, Google has reportedly digitized about 5,000 books from the Library of Congress as part of a pilot project to refine the techniques to make copies of fragile books without damaging them.

Google’s own plans to digitize large portions of the library collections of Stanford University, Harvard University, University of Michigan, Oxford University, and the New York Public Library has been met by lawsuits from a group of publishers, the Authors Guild, and several individual authors, who allege copyright infringement and have sought injunctions and a halt to further infringements. Allan Adler, vice president for legal and government affairs of the Association of American Publishers, said Google's contribution to the Library of Congress, and the company's pilot scanning projects there, are unlikely to raise any thorny legal issues.

To read the Academic Exchange coverage of issues of digitization and libraries, visit http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2006/decjan/lead.html


Link between diet and epileptic seizures studied

Researchers from Emory’s pharmacology department recently presented their latest findings on a special diet used to prevent epileptic seizures. The paper, coauthored by Raymond Dingledine, Professor of Pharmacology, and postdoctoral student Kristopher Bough, was delivered at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in Washington, D.C. held November 12-16.

The focus of the their research, the high-fat, calorie-restricted ketogenic diet, has long been used to prevent childhood epileptic seizures that are unresponsive to drugs. Physicians do not fully understood exactly why the diet works. Dingledine’s research, however, shows that the diet alters genes involved in energy metabolism in the brain, which in turn helps stabilize the function of neurons exposed to the challenges of epileptic seizures. This knowledge could help scientists identify specific molecular or genetic targets and lead to more effective drug treatments for epilepsy and brain damage.

“These findings support our hypothesis that a dietary regimen can dramatically affect the expression of genes and the function of neurons within the brain, which enhances the ability of these neurons to withstand the metabolic challenges of epileptic seizures,” said Dingledine.

The ketogenic diet causes molecules called ketone bodies to be produced as fat is broken down. Scientists have understood that these molecules somehow cause a change in metabolism leading to a potent anticonvulsant effect. According to some animal studies they also may limit the progression of epilepsy.

The Emory research team studied the link between diet and epileptic seizures on the behavioral, cellular, and genetic level. They found, as had others, that in rats fed the ketogenic diet, the resistance to seizures develops slowly, over one to two weeks, in contrast to rats treated with conventional anticonvulsant drugs. On the cellular level, they found that the anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet did not correlate with a rise in plasma ketone levels or with a decrease in plasma glucose. Because longer treatment with the ketogenic diet was necessary to increase the resistance to seizures, they concluded that changes in gene expression might hold the key to the diet's anticonvulsant effects.

The researchers believe their new knowledge could lead to the development of more effective drug treatments for epilepsy and brain damage. Because the diet enhances the brain's ability to withstand metabolic challenges, they also believe the ketogenic diet should be studied as a possible treatment for other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases.


Celebrating Emory Faculty Authors and Editors of Books in 2005

All Emory faculty are cordially invited to a celebration of Emory faculty authors and editors of books published in 2005.  We will celebrate over wine and hors d’oeuvres in the Druid Hills Bookstore on Tuesday, December 6, from 4:00-6:00pm.  Please R.S.V.P. by November 28 to Gillian Wickwire, 712-9497 or gwickwi@emory.edu

This event is sponsored by the Academic Exchange, the Druid Hills Bookstore, and the Office of the Bookstore Liasion. 

A 20 percent faculty appreciation discount at Druid Hills Bookstore will apply from Monday December 5 to Friday December 9 and extends to all trade titles (non-textbooks), except law and reference books.


Bowman named 2005 AAAS Fellow

Emory chemist Joel M. Bowman has been elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Election as an AAAS Fellow is an honor bestowed upon members by their peers. 

Bowman, chair of Emory’s chemistry department and the Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Theoretical Chemistry, is renowned for his work in theoretical and computational chemistry. His research examines chemical reactions and the vibration motions of molecules, with applications for atmospheric and interstellar chemistry and combustion.  He was cited by AAAS “for distinguished contributions to reduced dimensionality quantum approaches to reaction rates and to the formulation and application of self-consistent field approaches to molecular vibrations.”  

Awarded to 376 members this year, the individuals were chosen because of their efforts to advance science or applications that are deemed scientifically or socially distinguished. Bowman was among fifty-eight new fellows in the chemistry section. This year's AAAS Fellows were announced in the Oct. 28 issue of the journal Science and will be officially honored February 18 at the Fellows Forum during the 2005 AAAS Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C.

The tradition of AAAS fellows began in 1874. Founded in 1848, AAAS has worked to advance science for human well being through its projects, programs, and publications, in the areas of science policy, science education, and international scientific cooperation.


Pathologist receives prestigious American Heart Association award

Kenneth E. Bernstein, a distinguished service professor of pathology at Emory, is co-recipient of the 2005 Novartis Award in hypertension research from the American Heart Association (AHA). Bernstein is world renowned for groundbreaking discoveries that have transformed scientific knowledge about the link between kidneys, blood pressure, and cardiovascular function. Barry Brenner, MD, PhD, one of the world’s leading nephrologists and formerly chief of nephrology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, is the other co-recipient. The Novartis Award is given annually to honor individuals for contributions to the fight against hypertension, vascular disease and cardiovascular disease.

This marks the second year in a row that the Novartis Award went to an Emory School of Medicine faculty member. Last year’s co-recipient was cardiologist David Harrison, professor of medicine and director of the Division of Cardiology, who was recognized for his breakthrough discoveries about the biological processes underlying blood vessel injuries that lead to strokes and heart attacks. 

Over the past two decades Bernstein and his colleagues have been responsible for a number of key discoveries. In 1989 his laboratory was one of two in the world to clone and characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which controls the production of angiotensin II, the link between the kidneys and blood pressure control. His most significant discovery followed, when he cloned and characterized the gene for the angiotensin II receptor, which has become known as the AT? receptor. This receptor has since been shown to be responsible for virtually all of the physiologic and cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II.

“Angiotensin II is the central component of the complex and multifactorial process of blood pressure control,” Bernstein said, “and in the middle is the angiotensin II receptor, with its many effects on smooth muscle, the heart, the kidney, the adrenal glands, the brain, and the gut, all of which work coordinately to maintain blood pressure.  By understanding and cloning this receptor we uncovered a powerful tool for studying the multisystem process of blood pressure regulation.”

“By aiding the development of  medicines [that control blood pressure],” added Tristram Parslow, chair of Emory’s Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, “Dr. Bernstein’s research has benefited millions of Americans and saved many lives.”


New Specialization Blends Nursing and Theology

Emory’s schools of nursing and theology have joined forces to create an interdisciplinary program that explores issues of faith and health. The new program aspires to provide students with an understanding of health and faith by introducing them simultaneously to the principles and practices of nursing, religion, theology, and public health, and by teaching them how to integrate resources of faith and health sciences, according to Darla Ura, clinical associate professor at Emory's Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing.

The new specialization, in its pilot phase this fall, will be fully implemented by fall 2006, and be available to master's level students in nursing, theology, and public health.

Ura got the idea for the program a few years ago when she completed coursework in parish and faith-based nursing at the University of St. Louis. After developing the initial concept, she approached Karen Scheib, associate professor of pastoral care and counseling at Emory's Candler School of Theology, about establishing a joint certificate program. 

“Nurse's roles have traditionally been with healing of the body,” said Ura. “However, in the past several years emphasis has been placed on the holistic person, [and we are] realizing that an individual's spiritual and religious beliefs impact health and healing. The program in faith and health provides nurses the opportunity to expand their knowledge of faith practices and the impact that religion and spirituality has in the healing process of each patient.”

It also presents an opportunity to undertake a truly interdisciplinary approach to studying the intersection of religion and health, added Scheib. “All religious traditions have healing practices. In the Western Christian tradition there are close links between the understanding of salvation and health. In the West, nursing had its origin in the monastery. In contemporary U.S. culture, we are faced with a split between religion and health. Since religion is such an important fact of life in the U.S., it is vital that both religious professionals and health professionals understand the way in which the faith of a person from any religious tradition can hinder or help healing.”

To read Karen Scheib’s essay on “practicing what we profess” in the Academic Exchange, click here: http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2005/febmar/scheib.html.

To read the Academic Exchange special issue on religion, healing, and public health, click here: http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2003/aprmay/lead.html.


Happy Thoughts?

Can meditation improve brain function and health? Emory scholars are joining the controversial fray. Charles Raison, assistant professor of psychiatry, and former Tibetan monk Geshe Lobsang Negi, senior lecturer in religion and chair of the Emory-Tibet Partnership, are conducting research on the mind-body connection and health. Their current work is designed to see if meditation reduces depression among college freshman.

Conflict over other meditation research broke out after the Dalai Lama was invited to speak next month at the annual meeting of the International Society for Neuroscience. Nearly six hundred brain researchers signed a petition urging the society to cancel the lecture, because they say the meditation research lacks scientific rigor and objectivity.

“By studying the centuries-old practice of Tibetan meditation, very interesting results are just beginning to emerge in how meditation can change the brain and physiology,” said Negi.

Raison added that there tends to be little understanding and trust between the domains of science and religion. “It's premature to make big claims on the power of meditation based on preliminary studies,” he said. “However, the study of advanced Tibetan Buddhist meditation techniques may provide us high-grade raw material to work with to get an understanding of how the mind functions.”

Meditation is also making its way into college curricula, according to an October 21 article in the Chronicle of Higher Education. Students in the University of Michigan’s School of Music can receive bachelor's degrees in jazz and contemplative studies, while at Brown, a religious-studies professor includes meditation “labs” among his course requirements. And Frank L. Maddox, associate professor of economics at Emory’s Oxford campus, asks students to meditate on pictures of poor people. “I might have them look at an image of something to do with poverty or globalization,” Maddox said, “then free write, then meditate, then look at the image again, then free write.”

Critics charge that there is no place for meditation in the academy, though neuroscientific research may make the practice more palatable. One study at the University of Wisconsin found that Buddhist monks were able to activate “positive emotion” centers in their brains when concentrating on compassion—in fact, the most experienced monks registered higher brain activity in those regions than had ever been recorded in a healthy person. But until there’s well-documented evidence supporting a link between meditation and health—or even learning, the controversy is sure to continue. “I did not come out of the [meditation] closet that much until I was tenured,” Maddox told the Chronicle, “and it was a good call.”

To read the full Chronicle article, visit http://chronicle.com/weekly/v52/i09/09a01001.htm.

To read an AE interview with Charles Raison and article about mind-body medicine, visit http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2002/febmar/mindbody.html.

 


Baseball on—or in—the Brain

Watching the World Series may not be considered a useful adjunct to academic life at Emory—unless you’re taking Psychology 190, where it might be a homework assignment. The class, Science and Myth of Baseball, considers the sport as a useful metaphor for life, according to Professor Hillary Rodman, a neuroscientist and psychologist.

According to an article about the class in the October 16 Atlanta Journal Constitution, Rodman considers questions such as whether a clubhouse leader is worth a .212 batting average, or why making millions of dollars is so important to a player who “just loves the game.” Rodman, according to the article uses baseball to try to turn baseball into a prism through which they may view themselves. For examples, one of the topics covered in the class is the role of superstition on and off the field.

“A player might wear the same socks for a week, until his hitting streak is spent,” Rodman said. “A fan might always have to wear a specific T-shirt when watching at home. And a student might always have to bring a certain coffee cup or a certain piece of jewelry with them to the classroom when they take a test. We all do the same sorts of things.”

Sometimes, such unscientific activities actually pay off. “It's amazing how strong a hold beliefs like that can have on the mind of somebody who has a very high level of education—college students, faculty and the like—let alone a baseball player.”

In the case of the mediocre player who is a team leader, Rodman asks her class to figure out how to gauge such a player’s contribution to a team’s fortunes before and after he joined the roster. She also asks whether such an intellectual activity takes something away from the game by overanalyzing it.

According to Rodman, the class of fourteen consists of four Red Sox fans, three or four Braves fans, a few Phillies fans and a few, well, psychology fans—who, says Rodman, are among the most observant in the group.


Many women at elite schools consider family-career balance

Many women graduating from elite universities are giving more thought to a balancing careers and families, according to The New York Times.

“Many women at the nation's most elite colleges say they have already decided that they will put aside their careers in favor of raising children,” said the recent article. One noteworthy change in women’s attitudes has been that while two or three decades ago, many women expected to have full-time careers, a growing number now anticipate suspending or ending their careers after they have children.

Cynthia E. Russett, a professor of American history who has taught at Yale since 1967, told the Times that “women today are, in effect, turning realistic,” adding that she has noticed the change outlook among students.

The Times article also reported that interviews with female Ivy League undergraduate students revealed that roughly 60 percent said they planned to cut back on work or stop working entirely after having children. About half said they planned to work part time, and about half wanted to stop work for at least a few years. Only two women said they expected their husbands to stay home with the children while they pursued their careers, and two others said either they or their husbands would stay home, depending on whose career was most advanced.

The women said that pursuing a rigorous college education was worth the time and money because it would help position them to work in meaningful part-time jobs when their children are young or to attain good jobs when their children leave home.

“People have a heightened awareness of trying to get the right balance between work and family,” said Rebecca W. Bushnell, dean of the School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania.
To read the Times article, visit http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10A13FF38540C738EDDA00894DD404482

To read the Academic Exchange article on gender differences in the hard sciences at Emory, visit http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2005/sept/lead.html


Tiny molecules mean big deal for Emory, Georgia Tech researchers

The joint biomedical engineering program of Emory and Georgia Tech will receive a $20 million federal grant to apply their findings to the study of cancer. According to the Atlanta Journal Constitution, the money will be used to create a research center that focuses on the study of tiny molecules that can drill into a cancer cell and kill it. 

The recognition as one of seven national Centers of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence is the culmination of several years of work by local researchers and puts both schools in the company of other nanotechnology research powerhouses, including Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

The Center of Excellence designation means that Emory and Georgia Tech will house one of the largest federally funded programs in the country for biomedical nanotechnology. The center will employ 75 researchers and administrators and will be headed by Georgia Tech scientist Shuming Nie, a nationally recognized nanotechnology researcher. Nie told the Journal Constitution that the grant money will help the center recruit researchers from around the world and develop nanoparticles that are linked to cancer profiling and treatment.

The schools joined forces in 1997 to create a biomedical engineering department, which is ranked third in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.

Jonathan Simons, director of the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory, said the selection and grant could help the institute win designation as a comprehensive cancer treatment center from the National Cancer Institute, a goal it has worked toward for several years. Georgia is the most populous state in the country lacking such a center, forcing some cancer patients to travel out of state for treatment. Simons said the new center's greatest promise is in treatment. Emory will conduct clinical trials using nanotechnology, and the creation of useful materials, devices, and systems used to manipulate matter at an incredibly small scale.
“One day, you're going to get a biopsy, and at the end of the day, we'll be able to tell you how long we'll have to treat you and exactly how we will do it,” Simons said. “We'll be able to take every person's cancer and personalize it.”

 


Authors sue Google over university libraries digitizing project

Google has been hit with a lawsuit claiming that the Internet Powerhouse’s initiative to create searchable digital copies of several large university libraries constitutes massive copyright infringement.             According to reports from the New York Times, the Associated Press, and other news outlets, The Authors Guild and three authors filed the suit in the United States District Court in Manhattan, seeking damages and an injunction to halt further infringements. The plaintiffs are seeking class action status. The authors listed as plaintiffs include Daniel Hoffman, a former consultant in residence at the Library of Congress and the author of many volumes of poetry, translation, and literary criticism; Betty Miles, an author of children's and young adult fiction; and Herbert Mitgang, the author of a biography of Abraham Lincoln as well as novels and plays.

The Times article states that “Each of the plaintiffs claim copyright to at least one literary work that is in the library of the University of Michigan, according to the suit. Michigan is one of three universities, along with Harvard and Stanford, that agreed last year to let Google create searchable databases of their entire collections. The New York Public Library and Oxford University also entered into agreements with Google, but only for the works in their collections that are no longer covered by copyright.” Google intends to make money from the project by selling advertising on its Web page.            
From the inception of the project, Google claimed it was covered by the fair use provision of the copyright law, and therefore is allowed limited use of protected works. A statement issued by Google said that its program respected copyrights: “We regret that this group has chosen litigation to try to stop a program that will make books and the information within them more discoverable to the world.”   But in a prepared statement, Authors Guild President Nick Taylor said that “This is a plain and brazen violation of copyright law. It's not up to Google or anyone other than the authors, the rightful owners of these copyrights, to decide whether and how their works will be copied.

In August, Google suspended its library project to give authors and other copyright holders until November to decide whether to opt out of the program and withhold their works from being copied.


Important changes coming to University Teaching Fund

Arri Eisen of the biology department and chair of the University Teaching Fund makes the following announcement:
The Faculty Council, in consultation with the Provost's Office, has decided to offer one more year of funding by the University Teaching Fund.We have extended the Fall deadline for proposals until Nov 10, 2005.  The Spring deadline and all other guidelines remain the same as detailed at http://www.emory.edu/SENATE/facultycou/fac_cmtes/utf_bylaws.htm.This will be a transition year moving toward the development of a center for research and scholarship in teaching, which will continue to support teaching, but more completely--with monies, but also expertise in evaluation and other areas.  The transition is being led by Claire Sterk in the Provost's Office.  Look for announcements from UACT for visitors from other such centers around the country talking on Emory's campus in the coming weeks at http://www.emory.edu/TEACHING/.

Please contact Arri at aeisen@emory.edu with any questions.


Report: Men More Likely than Women to Win NIH Grants

A study by the RAND Corporation reveals that the National Institutes of Health awards significantly more grants to men than to women. The report was discussed in a September 14 article of The Chronicle of Higher Education.

According to the report, “Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs,” analyzed the outcomes of grant applications submitted by men and women to federal agencies from 2001 to 2003. The authors examined the probability of each application’s being accepted, the amount of money sought, the amount awarded, and the probability of the applicant’s applying again. The study focused on the NIH, which accounts for 99 percent of the research spending in the Department of Health and Human Services.

The report follows up on one released last year by the Government Accountability Office that called on federal agencies to do more to ensure that colleges and other recipients of federal grants do not discriminate against women in mathematics, engineering, and science (The Chronicle, July 29, 2004).

“I don’t see how federal agencies can possibly be in compliance with Title IX if they don’t even track the gender of their grant applicants, and Congress certainly can’t oversee compliance without this basic information,” said Oregon Senator Wyden (D) in a written statement. “It’s time to make certain that these appropriated taxpayer dollars are being distributed in accordance with federal law, in a way that gives a basic fair shake to every applicant.”

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 bans gender discrimination at institutions that receive federal funds and is best known for fostering the rise of women’s sports programs. But the law also applies to academic and research programs.

According to The Chronicle article, the report found no gender differences in federal spending at the National Science Foundation or the Agriculture Department over the three-year period of the study. Female applicants for NIH grants in 2001-2003, however, received on average only 63 percent of the money that male applicants received. One-third of this disparity is explained by the underrepresentation of women among the top 1 percent of NIH grant recipients.
To read the Chronicle of Higher Education article, visit http://chronicle.com/daily/2005/09/2005091404n.htmTo read the RAND Corporation report, visit http://www.rand.org/publications/TR/TR307/To read the GAO report, visit http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04639.pdf -

To read the Academic Exchange article on gender differences in the hard sciences at Emory, visit http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2005/sept/lead.html


Tropical medicine clinic opens

Emory and Grady Hospital have opened a clinic designed to provide specialized care to immigrants and refugees who have either acquired various illnesses from their birth countries or from travels outside the United States.

The clinic is specifically targeted at immigrants and refugees seeking care for various tropical infectious diseases but do not have adequate insurance for medical care, particularly costly diagnostic tests. The staff also treats travelers who have returned to the United States with an unknown illness. The clinic is open the first Monday of each month, but its hours are expected to grow as demand increases.

“We've been thinking about having a clinic like this for a number of years and have wanted to be able to take care of immigrants and refugees in a setting like Grady,” said Phyllis Kozarsky, MD, professor of medicine and the clinic’s co-director, who also serves as medical director of TravelWell, Emory’s travelers’ health clinic. “While the education and training of our physicians is excellent, it does not focus on many of the chronic or acute illnesses that many immigrants may bring with them or develop when traveling to visit their friends and family.”

Carlos Franco, professor of medicine and the clinic's director, added that the clinic provides specialized care to immigrants and refugees from countries that include Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. “Because we're experts in tropical and infectious diseases, we believe we can make a difference with treatment and hopefully provide a little bit of relief,” he said.

So far, clinic physicians have treated a patient for lymphatic filariasis, a disease transmitted by mosquitoes, and another for schistosomiasis or bilharzia, a parasitic disease that people acquire through contact with fresh water, and which afflicts more than 200 million people worldwide. Most cases occur in Africa and Southeast Asia. Screening is very important because the disease can lead to liver or bladder disease. Psychiatric support is also available for refugees and immigrants who are experiencing difficulty transitioning to a new country.


Anthropology's Armelagos receives top professional honor

Emory anthropologist George Armelagos is the 2005 recipient of the Viking Fund Medal, an annual honor given to an anthropologist for outstanding achievement in the field by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. The award recognizes achievements in anthropology that have transformed the discipline through research, mentoring, and service. Previous recipients include Margaret Mead, Louis S.B. Leakey, and Claude Levi-Strauss.

“This tremendous recognition from his peers is a testament to Dr. Armelagos’ many contributions and groundbreaking work in the field,” said Emory College Dean Robert Paul. “We’re very pleased to see him receive one of anthropology’s highest honors.”

Armelagos, professor of anthropology and chair of the department, is a
biological anthropologist. One of his foremost contributions has been his role in the establishment, development, and promotion of bioarchaeology as a field that combines physical and medical anthropology, health sciences, and archaeology into the influential multidisciplinary discipline that it is today.

Armelagos also has conducted influential work on the evolution of food choice and the impact of agricultural transition on human populations in terms of health and disease. This work has resulted in a general theory of the evolution of human disease and the epidemiological transitions that have taken place throughout the course of human history.

The Wenner-Gren board of trustees will present the medal and a $25,000 award to Armelagos at a reception Oct. 15. First awarded in 1946, the Viking Fund Medal was presented to exceptional anthropologists until 1972. Reinstituted in 2003, the medal rewards a scholar still active in scholarship, pedagogy, and service to the profession.


HIV Drug Developer Pours Funds Back Into Research

Raymond F. Schinazi, professor of pediatrics who played a key role in the development of the anti-HIV drug Emtriva, plans to invest $12 million in a new biomedical research company in Atlanta. The funding will come from Schinazi’s share of $210 million earned through the sale of royalty rights to the drug, one of the most potent and effective AIDS drugs now in use.

Emory researchers Dennis Liotta, professor of chemistry, and Woo-Baeg Choi will share the proceeds. Emory itself will pocket $315 from the licensing agreement with Gilead Sciences, Inc. and Royalty Pharma.

“I'm going to use some of my proceeds from my recent windfall to reinvest in research,” said Schinazi in an article that appeared in the Atlanta Business Chronicle and on MSNBC. “I'm not going to put it in my pocket and just go fly-fishing for the rest of my life.”

The start-up company, RFS Parma, will focus on developing antiviral drugs to combat HIV and hepatitis C. Schinazi said that he’s already hired two physicians and hopes to hire fifteen employees in the next year.

Schinazi is also the founder of Pharmasset, Inc., which has pursued drugs for HIV and hepatitis since it opened in 1998. In July, however, the Atlanta-based company announced that it would move to Princeton, New Jersey, to take advantage of the wealth of talent in the pharmaceutical industry available in that region.

After founding the company, Schinazi remained a director of Pharmasset until late June. “It's like my baby. It's like a parent seeing their child go away and never come back,” he said. “I'm extremely disappointed. I fought tooth and nail for Pharmasset to stay in Atlanta because that was my dream.”


Vole Family Values

Scientists have wondered why some male prairie voles are faithful partners and devoted fathers who spend a lot of time with their pups, while others stray and neglect their parental duties. Emory researchers may have found out why, but whether the reason can also explain parallel behavior among humans remains to be seen.

According to Larry J. Young, associate professor of psychiatry, the variance stems from a genetic mechanism that allows for accelerated evolutionary changes, and which depends on a highly variable section of DNA that controls the gene, he wrote in a recent issue of Science. The same mechanism is embedded in the human DNA sequence, according to the researcher, though its precise influence on people’s behavior has yet to be discerned.

In voles, the control section of their DNA expands and contracts as the creatures evolve so that the wild population will carry sections of varying lengths. Male voles with long control sections are monogamous and devoted to their offspring; those with shorter control segments have multiple mates and aren’t as conscientious dads.

The same variability exists in human DNA—at least seventeen separate lengths have been detected, says Young. But a slew of cultural and social influences make it very difficult to predict whether individual men with longer control segments in their DNA will have parenting skills that mimic those of the voles. He notes that the findings contradict assumptions that discerning genetic control of behavior would be too complicated to address: “The nice thing about this story is that it tells you it's not complex,” Young told the New York Times in an article that appeared July 19th .


Marsteller Defends Colleagues

In response to an editorial in the July 27 Atlanta Journal-Constitution that calls on Emory and its faculty to "put health before wealth," Pat Marsteller, Senior Lecturer in Biology and Director of the Emory College Center for Science Education, takes Dr. George Rusk to task for his "proposed solution and . . . the aspersions cast upon not only Emory University but also upon the investigators."
Marsteller writes that the Bayh-Dole act results in "more and better research for the future." She adds that other causes supersede HIV deaths.Marsteller also clarifies that "Emory investigators, led by Dr. Dennis Liotta, are working with developing nations, such as South Africa, to assist them in developing and training an internal work force to lead drug development and research in those nations. Liotta worked with AIDS drugs manufacturers to ensure policies that provide the drug at cost to developing nations."To read Pat Marsteller's full editorial, click here.

To read Marsteller's AE essay on "Teaching the Teachers: Reinventing graduate and postdoctoral education," visit http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2005/decjan/marsteller.html.


Royalty Deal Opens Questions about Money and Medicine

Last week brought the announcement that Emory had inked a $525 million agreement to sell to two private companies its royalty interests to Emtriva®, a drug developed by Emory researchers for the treatment of HIV infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. The news sparked a Morehouse Medical School faculty member to write a newspaper editorial titled "Emory, please put health before wealth."
"Fifty years ago," writes Dr. George Rust, a professor of family medicine, in the July 27 Atlanta Journal-Constitution, "Dr. Jonas Salk refused to patent the polio vaccine his research produced, in order that it might be widely disseminated for the greatest good."According to reports, the three researchers—Dennis Liotta, Raymond Schinazi, and Woo-Baeg Choi—will share 30 percent, or $210 million, of the sale. Rust writes, "Only the researchers can decide how much of their . . . windfall they need to keep in order to meet their own family needs, but Emory University itself could establish a foundation with its portion, to assure access to affordable HIV/AIDS drugs worldwide."According to the official announcement, Emory's 60 percent share of the deal—believed to be the largest sale of intellectual property ever in higher education—"will be reinvested in Emory's research mission following the terms of the Bayh-Dole Act passed by Congress in 1980 to encourage commercialization of research by universities." According to the AJC, President Jim Wagner has said that "the funds will be invested in scientific reserach and discovery, with a special emphasis on global health."To read George Rust's editorial, click here.To read the official announcement of the agreement, click here.To read the Academic Exchange's continuing coverage of issues of intellectual property and technology transfer in higher education, visit"For Its Own Sake: When Knowledge Isn't For Sale" (Dec 04/Jan 05)"Money Changes Everything: Commerce, Philanthropy, and the Culture of the Academy" (Dec 02/Jan 03)"No Conflict, No Interest: Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer" (Feb/Mar 00)

"Ideas for Sale: Will Technology Transfer Undermine the Academy or Save It?" (Dec 99/Jan 00)