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Kevin Young, NewsPoet
April 2, 2012

Kevin Young, Atticus Haygood Professor of Creative Writing and English, composed and read his version of the news in verse on the National Public Radio show All Things Considered. 

Young’s appearance was a continuation of a project called NewsPoet, in which a poet spends a few hours in the NPR newsroom listening to reports of the day’s events, then reflects his experience in poetry at the end of the day. 

According to All Things Considered host Audie Cornish, Young took careful notes at the morning meeting while the staff pitched ideas. “People seemed very calm about it,” said Young on the NPR Website, even though they had “a spy in their midst.”

One segment in particular, about what might happen if Texas seceded from the U.S., caught his attention. “I had spent last May in Texas, living there and writing,” Young said. His poem built on the story's theme and began to imagine the challenges of creating a new currency and a new anthem. He combined it with another news story that detailed the demise of the Canadian penny. “Somehow trade relations with Canada seemed to play in. . . . The death of the penny became the death of other things, and a way of mourning something perhaps more grand,” Young said.

The result was “Anthem”:


Life is a near
death experience.
You can go
to hell, I'm goin
to Texas. It costs
more than a penny
to make a penny.
A dollar for your

thoughts, and a dream.

Click here to read the rest of the poem and the full article on the NPR website.


More Supreme Court Justices Have Other Things to Do on State of the Union Night
January 31, 2012

Why do Supreme Court Justices bother to show up at the State of the Union address anymore, given that they’ve frequently criticized the circus-like atmosphere of the event? For example, Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. called the address “a political pep rally.” Justice Antonin Scalia called it “a juvenile spectacle.” Justice Clarence Thomas said he disliked “the catcalls, the whooping and hollering and under-the breath comments.”

During the 2010 State of the Union address, President Obama took direct aim at the court when he strongly criticized its controversial Citizens United decision that allows unlimited election campaign-related spending by corporations.

Micheal W. Giles, Fuller E. Callaway Professor of Political Science at Emory, and Todd C. Peppers, Henry H. and Trudye H. Fowler Chair in Public Affairs, and Associate Professor at Roanoke College, took a look into the trends regarding the Supreme Court and the State of the Union address, assembling huge amounts of data, including videos, photographs, and newspaper articles along the way. Their work was reported on in the January 23 New York Times.

Justices’ attendance at the address has fallen, they found: From 1965, when President Lyndon B. Johnson spoke, through 1980 the attendance rate was 84 percent. But over the next two decades, the number dropped to 53 percent. Since 2000, the rate has fallen to 32 percent, according to the researchers. In three of those years, only Justice Stephen G. Breyer attended. In 2000, Breyer had the flu and no justices attended.

That general pattern is not unusual, according to the researchers, who found that the likelihood of attendance declined with age and length of service.

“I went into this project assuming that ideology was going to explain these patterns,” Peppers told the Times. “That doesn’t appear to be the case.”

A year after the Citizen’s United comment (and Justice Samuel A. Alito mouth dissent, “not true), the chief justice told a told a law school audience that attending State of the Union addresses was problematic and unpleasant, but he nonetheless attended the subsequent address, as did five other justices—a strong turnout by recent standards. Five justices attended this year's address.

Giles said the justices were wise to attend: “This is a very visual age. I do think that it’s important that they show up. It shows an image that is beneficial to the court.”

To read the entire article, visit  
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/24/us/state-of-the-union-can-be-a-trial-for-supreme-court-justices.html?_r=1


International Legal Scholar David Bederman Passes
December 21, 2011

David J. Bederman, K.H. Gyr Professor of Private International Law, died on December 4, 2011.  He was 50.

During his twenty years at Emory, Bederman taught courses and seminars on international law, torts, admiralty, international institutions, law of international common spaces, legal methods, legislation and regulation, customary law, international environmental law and foreign relations power. He served as advisor to the Emory International Law Review and was director of international legal studies. He established the Supreme Court Advocacy Project at the law school and was an associated faculty member of the Center for the Study of Law and Religion. He also held distinguished appointments to boards of journals, NGOs, a publicly traded corporation, and various governmental committees.

His defense of Premier Exhibitions, an Atlanta company that held the salvage rights to the Titanic, helped him become one of a handful of lawyers in the world who could navigate the arcane legal realm surrounding shipwrecks. “As academics, we have the great gift of getting to pursue unexpected pathways. I love the history and lore and romance of the ocean, but I’m a total landlubber,” Bederman said in a 2007 interview about his turning down an invitation to visit the sunken Titanic. “My idea of sea adventure is going to the deep end of the pool.”

Bederman was the author of twelve books and 125 articles, and he presented more than eighty public lectures at distinguished universities and learned societies in North America and Europe. He was the counsel of record in fifty-two cases in the United States Courts of Appeals, and he argued four cases before the US. Supreme Court.

“David’s record of scholarly achievement was impressive to the point of being improbable,” said Interim Law School Dean Robert Schapiro.

In 2011, Emory Law established the David J. Bederman Distinguished Lecture, along with a summer fellowship at The Hague Academy of International Law, in honor of Bederman’s career and accomplishments.


Physician and Scholar Fray Marshall Passes
December 20, 2011

Fray Marshall, chair of the Department of Urology in the School of Medicine, died on December 2, 2011. He was 67.

Marshall was among the nation’s foremost urologic surgeons and clinical researchers.
He contributed to innovations in the management and surgical treatment of large and small kidney tumors, and in the areas of urologic oncology, bladder reconstruction related to cancer, and less invasive prostate cancer surgery. He helped Emory expand and strengthen clinical programs in prostate cancer, incontinence and cryosurgery, while also developing top programs in teaching and basic scientific research.

During his 36-year career in academic urology, he co-authored more than 300 scientific papers and sixty-two book chapters, edited seven books, and delivered nearly 400 presentations.  He served on the editorial boards of several medical journals, including the Journal of Urology, Urology, Uro-oncology and the International Journal of Urology. He treated thousands of patients with kidney, prostate, bladder and many other urological diseases while practicing at Emory for thirteen years and at Johns Hopkins University for twenty-three years.

In March, the School of Medicine established the Fray F. Marshall Chair in Urology, which will be devoted to research and will help ensure his legacy of academic excellence and innovation. 


Candace Lang, Department of French and Italian, Passes
November 22, 2011

Candace Lang, associate professor of French and Italian, died on October 31 after a battle with cancer.

Lang played a central role in the leadership of the Department of French and Italian, serving as its chair from 2006-2009, and again from 2010 until her recent medical leave.

Robin Forman, Dean of Emory College, wrote about Lang: “I had several opportunities to work closely with Candace over the last year. While others surely knew her better, I quickly came to admire her fierce enthusiasm for the scholarship and teaching of her colleagues, her wry sense of humor, and the grace and disarming candor with which she confronted her illness. Her devotion to French studies and to the department was evident in everything that she did, and she brought her wit, humor, and shrewd judgment to her work as chair. I learned a great deal from her about the department, about the study of literature, and about how we might face moments of great challenge with courage and dignity.”
           
Lang specialized in nineteenth and twentieth-century French literature, autobiography, and critical theory. She was the author of Irony/Humor: Critical Paradigms (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988), and had been working on “Settling Accounts: Guilt and Narrative in the Autobiographies of Gide, Sartre, and Robbe-Grillet.” 

A service to celebrate the memory of Candace Lang will take place on Thursday, Dec. 1, 2011 from 4-5:30 p.m. in Cannon Chapel.  All members of the University community are welcome.  If you would like further information, please contact Kate Bennett in the Department of French and Italian (kate.bennett@emory.edu).


Second volume of Samuel Beckett letters published
November 9, 2012

In 2009, Emory celebrated the publication of The Letters of Samuel Beckett, 1929-1940. Last month, it followed up with the publication of The Letters of Samuel Becket, 1941-1956, (Cambridge University Press).

The collection was edited by a group of Emory scholars, the University of Sussex, and the American University of Paris. More than 100 undergraduate and graduate students also assisted on the project.

Emory’s Laney Graduate School marked the event by the presentation “Words Are All We Have: From ‘Watt’ to ‘Godot,” featuring readings by Irish actor Barry McGovern and Atlanta actors Carolyn Cook, Robert Shaw-Smith and Brenda Bynum, who is a former resident artist and lecturer with Theater Emory. Several departments, along with the Consulate General of Ireland, the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and the Consulate General of France in Atlanta co-sponsored the event in Glenn Memorial Auditorium.        

The reclusive Beckett was a reclusive, avant-garde novelist, theater director and poet, who once wrote that “every word is like an unnecessary stain on silence and nothingness.” His more than 15,000 letters, spanning six dynamic decades of the 20th century, tell a different story, revealing a softer side of the self-effacing, reticent writer who refused to attend his own Nobel Prize ceremony and preferred to let the words on the page speak for themselves.

“Beckett is the most abstract of authors,” said Jan Steyn, an Emory doctoral student in comparative literature, who began working for the Beckett Letters Project in 2006 as an undergraduate at The American University in Paris. “His landscapes could be anywhere, his characters could be anyone.”

The Beckett Letters Project exemplifies Emory's core mission of fostering sustained intellectual effort, said Vice President and Secretary of the University Rosemary Magee. 

“Over time, this work will result in a much deeper grasp of Samuel Beckett as a thinker and artist as he came to understand himself in conversation with a wider literary and scholarly community,” she said. “Moreover, it will continue to inform our larger understanding of the impulses and processes that lead to remarkable creativity.”

To read the entire article in The Emory Report, visit this link.


Can Cancer Ever Be Ignored?
October 12, 2011

A recent New York Times article described Otis W. Brawley, chief medical officer of the American Cancer Society and professor of oncology and epidemiology at Emory, as the public face of the cancer establishment:  “He operates in a world of similarly high-achieving, multiple-credentialed, respectable professionals, where insults tend to be delivered, stiletto-style, in scientific language that lay people aren’t meant to understand.”

Brawley, the article continued, has been the target of sharp attacks for his position on prostate cancer screening. One critic accused Brawley of being more concerned about saving men’s sex lives than about saving the men themselves. The criticism stems from Brawley’s skepticism about the routine use of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screen for early prostate cancer.

“I’m not against prostate-cancer screening,” Brawley told the Times. “I’m against lying to men. I’m against exaggerating the evidence to get men to get screened. We should tell people what we know, what we don’t know and what we simply believe.”

The PSA test has become a yearly routine for millions of middle-aged men who assume that finding the cancer early will prevent death, said the article. But the evidence is not convincing to Brawley and many others. Fueling the debate are recent studies indicating that routine PSA testing may reduce mortality related to prostate cancer only to an exceedingly modest extent.

The controversy has polarized views. One side claims simply that the test reduces the chance of dying of prostate cancer. But there is a multibillion-dollar industry that has huge financial stakes in the testing and treatment of the disease. Screening, argues Brawley and others, “can lead heal thy men into a cascade of further testing and treatments that end up injuring or even killing them,” according to the article. Even the discoverer of a prostate-specific antigen, Richard Ablin, wrote in a Times op-ed piece that relying on the PSA test to screen for cancer has been “a public health disaster.”

Brawley once believed that routine screening was the best medical practice. He began to rethink his position while he was a fellow at the National Cancer Institute in 1988. One of his mentors, Barnett Kramer, an oncologist and epidemiologist, explained to Brawley why he thought the PSA test was not effective.

“In his discussions with Kramer, Brawley saw that … two pieces of information — the fact that a certain number of prostate cancers will never cause harm, and that doctors can’t reliably predict which cancers will be dangerous — had powerful and potentially devastating consequences for men,” the Times said.

The article went on: “For Brawley, the greatest tragedy of PSA screening is that it has been a distraction from making greater progress in reducing deaths with the one clear helpful thing: distinguishing between the prostate tumors that really need to come out and those that are better left alone. Instead, new types of PSA screening are being promoted.”

“We live in a time when our failure to define questions properly has delayed our progress and harmed health,” Brawley said.

To view the entire article, visit this link.


In Defense of a “Literary Barbarian”: Professor Hits Back Against Harsh Book Review
October 3, 2011

Last month a Wall Street Journal book review came down hard on “The Cambridge History of the American Novel,” co-edited by Benjamin Reiss, professor of English. Reiss responded in an article that appeared recently in Slate.

He called the review a “diatribe” that identified “the usual academic murder weapons: multiculturalism, literary theory, and hatred of America. English professors have abandoned the central task of criticism—defending great works from pop-cultural rubbish—and have given ourselves over exclusively to such buzzkilling concepts as race, class, gender, and disability.”

The reviewer, Joseph Epstein, writes Reiss, rails against the books focus on context, “especially those that might trouble happy narratives of national progress,” and calls for a return to the glory days of forty or fifty years ago. “If only we could just teach students to love the canon again, we could return to the golden age,” Reiss continued.

Reiss called the reviewer’s characterization of the book “closed-minded and inaccurate,” but acknowledges that the “rant” raises a good question: “what is literary history and how should it be brought to bear on the genre of the novel.” The book, he continues, “is really a biography of the novel as it intersects with American history. Part of the explanation for the changing shape of the American novel involves individual genius (i.e., great writers), but it also involves the stuff of national history: wars, slavery, emancipation, democracy, territorial expansion, civil rights, women's rights, immigration, and capitalism. . . . Simply recording our appreciation for the ‘high truth quotient’ (the measure Epstein wants) of a stream of canonical novels won't do.”

To read Reiss’s entire article, visit Slate.

To read the book review, visit The Wall Street Journal.


NEH Professor of the Humanities Ivan Karp Passes
September 26, 2011

National Endowment for the Humanities Professor in Emory's Graduate Institute of the Liberal Arts (ILA) Ivan Karp passed away on September 17. Karp was a member of the Emory faculty from 1993 until his retirement last May.
           
Karp was highly influential in African studies, museum studies, and public scholarship. At Emory, he served as the director of the ILA from (1993-1996), director of the Institute of African Studies (1996-1999), and director of the Center for International Studies (1996-1999). He co-founded and was co-director of the Center for the Study of Public Scholarship (CSPS), as well as the Laney Graduate School’s Grant Writing Program (2002-present). With more than thirty years of teaching experience, Dr. Karp was also a dedicated mentor to many graduate students, drawing upon his broad interests and vast research experience to oversee and guide students’ projects and dissertations.
           
Among his many honors and awards were the Marion Creekmore Award for significant contributions to internationalizing Emory (2005); a Rockefeller Foundation Grant to establish the Institutions of Public Culture, a linked program of fellowships and student awards between Emory University and selected institutions in Cape Town, South Africa (2000-08); a Ford Foundation grant in support of Area Studies under the Crossing Boundaries, Cultural Studies and Area Studies Initiatives (1997); a Rockefeller Foundation Grant for a Postdoctoral Center in the Humanities on the subject of Public Scholarship (1996-2000); a Special Award for the Office of the Assistant Secretaries for Museums for research on Museums and the Cultural Imagination (1992); a Rockefeller Foundation-Smithsonian Institution grant for conferences on Museums and Communities and Exhibiting Other Cultures (1987, 1988).
           
Prior to joining Emory, Karp served in academic appointments at Colgate University, Indiana University, and Catholic University. From 1989 to 1991, he served as chair of the Ethnology Division in the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian). He also served as Curator of Research in Anthropology and African Cultures at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) from 1984-93.  

In lieu of flowers, please send memorial gifts to the Ivan Karp Donation Fund in one of the following ways. The IK Fund will be used to continue our collaborative work with universities and museums in Cape Town on public scholarship, African studies and Ivan’s other interests (social theory, history of anthropology etc.). Donations will be tax deductible.

Contributions should be directed to the Ivan Karp Donation Fund and show the following account number: 1891283663.

1) Checks can be sent either directly to the bank (Aimie Martinez, Manager, Wells Fargo, MAC Q2421-011, 502 N. Guadalupe, Santa Fe NM 87501), or to Corinne A. Kratz (PO Box 216, Tesuque NM 87574). Checks sent in both these ways will receive tax receipts from the bank. They will not, however, keep track of who has sent donations directly to the bank.

2) If you want to send a donation via wire, the routing number for the Wells Fargo (De Vargas branch) is 121000248.  Their phone number, if you need it is 505-982-2937. Donations by wire will not receive a tax receipt.

3) If you want to donate via billpay or EFT, the routing number is 107002192. If you are in Atlanta and bank with the former Wachovia (now Wells Fargo), you can do this under the tab for “transfers to another Wells Fargo customer”. Again, these transfers will not generate a tax receipt.


NIH Selects Emory Team for Drug Discovery in Stroke
September 6, 2011

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has selected a research team from Emory University to develop new drugs for stroke as part of the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research. The Blueprint includes projects by seven teams of investigators throughout the United States focusing on conditions including stroke, vision and hearing loss, neurodegenerative diseases, and depression.

The Emory team, led by principal investigator Raymond Dingledine, executive associate dean for research and chair of the Department of Pharmacology in Emory School of Medicine, will be supported by $969,000 in NIH funding over five years. It aims to develop drugs based on compounds called prostaglandins, which have been shown to protect animals from brain damage following a stroke.

The team has identified compounds that enhance these protective effects by acting on a specific receptor for prostaglandins, known as EP2. Because stroke interventions work best when given shortly before or after stroke, the team plans to focus on developing EP2-targeted drugs for individuals with subarachnoid hemorrhage, a kind of stroke caused by a ruptured blood vessel. In the weeks following hemorrhage, such individuals are at increased risk for another stroke and could benefit from a protective drug while they are in intensive care.

The NIH Blueprint pulls together resources from fifteen of the agency’s institutes and centers and creates a Blueprint Neurotherapeutics Network that will serve as a resource for investigators to develop new drugs and prepare them for clinical trials. The Network will be funded at up to $50 million over five years.

In addition to research funding, project teams will have access to millions of dollars worth of services normally only available to pharmaceutical companies. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry consultants will assist investigators throughout the drug development process, from chemical optimization, to biological testing, to advancing the drug into early-stage clinical trials.

“This new Blueprint Network will allow us to move our research forward more rapidly into drug development and meet a challenging but critical need for better therapies for one of the primary causes of death and disability,” said Dingledine. “This is a significant opportunity for the federal government to optimize the discoveries of its funded researchers and laboratories for the benefit of patients.”


Obama Squandered Historic Opportunity, Says Psychology Professor

August 9, 2011

In the August 6 New York Times, Drew Westen, professor of psychology, wrote an op-ed piece, “What Happened to Obama” that is highly critical of the president. What makes this a little different is that Westen is a Democratic consultant and had been a strong Obama supporter.

Westen laments that Obama has not fulfilled the expectations of those who voted for him and has squandered his potentially historic role in reshaping America. When Obama was elected, Westen said, many who voted for him were desperate for a leader who could create a narrative that would help them make sense of the economic disaster they were suffering through, and then fight and lead them out of the gloom.

“Yet,” wrote Westen, “Instead of indicting the economic policies and principles that had just eliminated eight million jobs, in the most damaging of the tic-like gestures of compromise that have become the hallmark of his presidency — and against the advice of multiple Nobel-Prize-winning economists — he backed away from his advisers who proposed a big stimulus, and then diluted it with tax cuts that had already been shown to be inert. The result, as predicted in advance, was a half-stimulus that half-stimulated the economy. That, in turn, led the White House to feel rightly unappreciated for having saved the country from another Great Depression but in the unenviable position of having to argue a counterfactual — that something terrible might have happened had it not half-acted.”

In similar circumstances, Westen said, Franklin D. Roosevelt “offered Americans a promise to use the power of his office to make their lives better and to keep trying until he got it right.”

Westen went on to say that even now, he has no idea what Obama believes on any issue:


“This pattern of presenting inconsistent positions with no apparent recognition of their incoherence is another hallmark of this president’s storytelling. He announces in a speech on energy and climate change that we need to expand offshore oil drilling and coal production — two methods of obtaining fuels that contribute to the extreme weather Americans are now seeing. He supports a health care law that will use Medicaid to insure about 15 million more Americans and then endorses a budget plan that, through cuts to state budgets, will most likely decimate Medicaid and other essential programs for children, senior citizens and people who are vulnerable by virtue of disabilities or an economy that is getting weaker by the day… The real conundrum is why the president seems so compelled to take both sides of every issue, encouraging voters to project whatever they want on him, and hoping they won’t realize which hand is holding the rabbit.”  

To read Westen’s article, click here.

Westen’s article led to significant media follow-up, including interviews on CNN and MSNBC, and mentions in numerous publications, including the following:


Emory Psychologist: Time for Profession to Explain its Value to Society
August 2, 2011

The field of psychology needs to do a better job educating the public and regulating itself, according to Scott Lilienfeld, Professor of Psychology. His paper, “Public Skepticism of Psychology: Why Many People Perceive the Study of Human Behavior as Unscientific,” appears in American Psychologist.

“In everyday life, in love, relationships and work, everyone deals with psychology, and most of us find it fascinating,” Lilienfeld said in an article in Emory’s eScience Commons. “That’s great, but it’s a mixed blessing because people confuse familiarity with true understanding. Your mind is actually a lot more complex than you think.”

Lilienfeld’s paper counters what he describes as the widespread perception that psychology is “a soft, gooey science” based largely on common sense. The same rigorous, scientific methods applied to the “hard” sciences are used in psychology, Lilienfeld writes. He cites analyses showing psychology research can yield repeatable results comparable to the findings in particle physics.

U.S. Senator Tom Coburn (R-OK) is calling for the National Science Foundation to defund its social and behavioral sciences division and focus on “truly transformative sciences with practical uses outside of academic circles and clear benefits to mankind and the world.”

“Media therapists” like Laura Schlessinger and Phillip McGraw are just adding to the confusion, he said. “Dr. Phil makes claims that go way beyond the scientific evidence, or in some cases, directly contradict the science.”

In fact, basic psychology research has played a role in everything from reducing errors made by airplane pilots to helping law enforcement catch criminals, Lilienfeld said.

To read the complete story at Emory’s eScience Commons, visit
http://esciencecommons.blogspot.com/2011/07/psychologys-public-image-problem.html

To see the paper’s abstract, visit http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2011-12007-001/


Health Experts Challenge Industry’s Nutrition Labeling Food Labeling Proposal
July 13, 2011

Citing evidence that shows notable deficiencies in the food industry’s latest labeling system called Nutrition Keys, health experts challenged the industry’s action in an article published in the June 23, 2011, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

In their “Perspective” piece, Jeffrey Koplan, Vice President for Global Health and Director of the Emory Global Health Institute, and Kelly Brownell, Director of the Rudd Center of Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University, noted that even though the industry’s action may seem positive at first glance by creating a single system with objective nutrition information, the approach is contrary to what research shows would be helpful to consumers. They said it also preemptively undermines the deliberations of the Food and Drug Administration and the Institute of Medicine, which are scheduled to release a report on food labeling in the fall.

The food industry announced its own nutrition labeling approach in January 2011. Brownell and Koplan argue that this action may have been taken to “lock in a system that would change food choices as little as possible and preempt the imposition of an alternative system that would be based on the available and relevant science.”

Several front-of-pack labeling systems have already been scientifically developed, tested and found helpful to consumers, including the “traffic-light” system developed in Britain in which red, green, and yellow symbols are used to show which foods might be eaten freely, in moderation or sparingly. The traffic-light system is based on a nutrient profiling method that is used to determine which foods can be marketed to children in Britain and will be used in Australia as the basis for allowing health claims on food packages.

The authors assert that compared with the easy-to-understand traffic-light approach, the industry’s Nutrition Keys system is too complex, with too many symbols, and may create confusion for consumers. The average shopper only examines a package for a few seconds before making a decision, hence it is concerning that the industry system presents numbers that many consumers may not understand, such as the % Daily Value. Further confusion may arise because a high score is considered good for some nutrients like fiber and bad for others such as saturated fat.

They conclude that “industry leaders who profess to be responsible partners in preventing and controlling the obesity epidemic have an opportunity now to reject this noncollaborative, premature approach and show good faith by awaiting the IOM report and endorsing the best evidence-based approach to front-of-package labeling. Otherwise, “industry may have proven itself untrustworthy again and raised the risk of what it wishes to avoid – government’s exercising of its authority to mandate some types of labeling and to restrict others.”   

To read the NEJM article, visit http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1101033

Nubian Mummies Show Signs of “Modern” Waterborne Plague
June 17, 2011

Mummies from along the Nile are revealing how age-old irrigation techniques may have boosted the plague of schistosomiasis, a water-borne parasitic disease that infects an estimated 200 million people today.

According to a study published in the June issue of The American Journal of Physical Anthropology, an analysis of the mummies from Nubia, a former kingdom that was located in present-day Sudan, provides details for the first time about the prevalence of the disease across populations in ancient times and how human alteration of the environment may have contributed to its spread.

The study was led by Emory graduate student Amber Campbell Hibbs, who recently received her PhD in anthropology, and co-authored by George Armelagos, Goodrich C White Professor of Anthropology, along with colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the University of Colorado at Boulder.

About 25 percent of the mummies in the study that were dated to about 1,500 years ago were found to have Schistosoma mansoni, a species of schistosomiasis associated with more modern-day irrigation techniques.

Schistosomiasis is caused by parasitic worms that live in certain types of freshwater snails. The parasite can emerge from the snails to contaminate fresh water, and then infect humans whose skin comes in contact with the water. Infection can cause anemia and chronic illness that impairs growth and cognitive development, damages organs, and increases the risk for other diseases. Along with malaria, schistosomiasis ranks among the most socio-economically damaging parasitic diseases in the world.

“Often in the case of prehistoric populations, we tend to assume that they were at the mercy of the environment, and that their circumstances were a given,” said Hibbs. “Our study suggests that, just like people today, these ancient individuals were capable of altering the environment in ways that impacted their health.”

As far back as the 1920s, evidence of schistosomiasis was detected in mummies from the Nile River region, but only in recent years did the analysis of the antigens and antibodies of some of the individuals become possible.

“The Nubians were probably in healthier shape than many other populations of their time, due to the dry climate, which would reduce their bacterial load, and because they were getting tetracycline,” Armelagos said. “But the prevalence of schistosomiasis shown in this study suggests that their parasite load was probably quite heavy.”

Armelagos has been studying ancient Nubian populations for more than three decades. Through extensive analysis, he and colleagues have shown that nearly two thousand years ago, the Nubians were regularly consuming tetracycline, most likely in their beer, at levels high enough to show they were deliberately brewing the antibiotic effects.

For more information, visit

http://www.livescience.com/14505-mummies-schistosomiasis-irrigation.html

Deborah Lipstadt Writes and Speaks about Eichmann, Demjanjuk and Justice
June 7, 2011

Deborah Lipstadt, the Dorot Professor of Jewish Studies at Emory, has been featured prominently in print and on the radio recently.

On April 8, her book The Eichmann Trial was reviewed in the New York Times Book Review. The book covers a lot of ground, including (unavoidably)  the controversial views of Hannah Arendt, the German-American political theorist. Lipstadt also argues, according to the review, that that the testimony of Holocaust survivors at the trial of war criminal Adolf Eichmann shattered the self-image of Zionists: “Israelis had imagined that European Jewry had been too meek to defend itself during the war, the characterological opposite of the macho sabras [native born Israelis],” wrote the reviewer. “It was only during the Eichmann trial that Israelis came to appreciate the impossibility of resisting the Nazis, that Israelis weren’t morally superior to their diaspora cousins. ‘Some Israelis began to grasp that, rather than constituting a different breed of Jews, they were simply generationally and geographically lucky,’ [Lipstadt] writes. The nation suddenly understood the centrality of the Holocaust to its national story.”

Lipstadt also wrote an op-ed piece in the May 16 New York Times about John Demjanjuk, who was found guilty last month by a German court on 28,060 counts of accessory to murder, one for each of the Jews exterminated during the six months that he worked as a guard at the Sobibor death camp in Poland. The trial, Lipstadt wrote, will probably be the last Holocaust war crimes trial to grab headlines. She pointed out that, coincidentally, the verdict came fifty years after the Eichmann trial.

“What happened at both of these trials is more important than the ultimate fates of the guilty. Now as then, the victims were given a chance to tell their story, not in a book, interview or speech, but in a court of law,” Lipstadt wrote. “At the Eichmann trial close to 100 witnesses testified about their suffering. At the Demjanjuk trial we heard from the victims’ children. They joined the prosecutor in pointing their fingers at the man who facilitated their parents’ murders. In other words, the Demjanjuk trial proves that while Eichmann himself may be history, the robust process that made Holocaust trials into something more than mere court proceedings is still effective. And finally, the Demjanjuk case, by its very complexity, is a fitting coda to the Eichmann trial because it reminds us that adjudicating genocide is, like the act itself, rarely straightforward. These cases raise difficult questions about how to punish different types of participation in a genocide; does a guard who carried it out deserve more or less punishment than a bureaucrat who planned it?”

On May 18, Lipstadt was interviewed on National Public Radio (NPR) about the Demjanjuk and Eichmann trials and their relative importance. She was also interviewed on WABE, Atlanta’ public broadcasting radio station, on May 10.

To read the articles and interview transcripts, and listen to the interviews, visit the following websites:


Sleep and Growth Inextricably Linked in Infants
May 31, 2011

Findings from the first study of its kind measuring the link between daily growth and sleep show the two are strongly linked. Specifically, growth spurts are tied to an increase in total daily hours of sleep as well as an increase in the number of daily sleep bouts, and the time from the onset of sleep until awakening.

“Little is known about the biology of growth spurts,” said lead study author Michelle Lampl, Samuel C. Dobbs professor of anthropology at Emory.  “Our data open the window to further scientific study of the mechanisms and pathways that underlie saltatory growth.”

Practically speaking, the study helps parents understand that irregular sleep behavior is a normal part of growth and development. “Sleep irregularities can be distressing to parents,” said Lampl. “However, these findings give babies a voice that helps parents understand them and show that seemingly erratic sleep behavior is a normal part of development. Babies really aren’t trying to be difficult.”

The study appears in the May 1 issue of the journal Sleep. Lampl and co-author Michael Johnson, professor of pharmacology with the University of Virginia Health System, also found that longer sleep bouts in both girls and boys predicted an increase in weight and body fat composition tied to an increase in length. What’s more, the study showed differences in sleep patterns related to growth depending on the sex of the baby. “Growth spurts were associated with increased sleep bout duration in boys compared with girls and increased number of sleep bouts in girls compared with boys,” said Lampl.

In general, boys in the study exhibited more sleep bouts and shorter sleep bouts than girls. But neither the sex of the infant nor breastfeeding had significant effects on total daily sleep time. However, breastfeeding as opposed to formula feeding was associated with more and shorter sleep bouts.

Unlike previous studies, this study did not rely on parental recall of infant sleep patterns and growth. Instead, data on twenty-three infants were recorded in real time over a four- to seventeen-month span. Mothers kept daily diaries detailing sleep onset and awakening and noted whether babies were breastfeeding, formula feeding, or both and whether their infant showed signs of illness, such as vomiting, diarrhea, fever or rash.


Founding Force in School of Public Health Passes
May 12, 2011

David J. Sencer, former director of the CDC and considered one of the “founding fathers” of the Rollins School of Public Health, has passed. He was 86. Sencer was the longest serving CDC director, holding the post from 1966 to 1977. During his tenure, he oversaw a substantial expansion of the agency as it dealt for the first time with malaria, nutrition, anti-smoking efforts, health education, and occupational safety. The CDC’s greatest success under his leadership was a program that eradicated smallpox, beginning in central Africa and eventually extending worldwide.

While at the CDC, Sencer was instrumental in starting Emory’s program in public health in 1974. By the 1990s it had evolved into the Rollins School of Public Health. He considered this, along with his leadership during the smallpox eradication campaign, among his greatest contributions to public health.

“Dave Sencer was a public health giant,” Thomas Frieden, the current director of the CDC, said in the New York Times. “And until the end he continued to be a thoughtful and vibrant member of the public health community. At the height of the H1N1 pandemic of 2009, he was here full time, and I said, ‘Can I pay you?’ He said, ‘No, this is a labor of love.’”

“I never asked him for anything that he didn’t deliver,” added William H. Foege, who led the smallpox eradication project at the CDC and who succeeded Dr. Sencer as director. “He said you couldn’t protect U.S. citizens from smallpox without getting rid of it in the world, and that was a new approach. People in the field got all the praise, but he was the unsung hero. He just kept providing what we needed.”

In 2008, the Rollins School established the David J. Sencer Scholarship Fund with generous support from the Sencer family. This endowment provides scholarship support for an MPH student who personifies the characteristics that Sencer demonstrated throughout his remarkable career. Gifts in his memory may be made online at www.sph.emory.edu/alumni_gift

To view Sencer’s obituary in the New York Times, visit www.nytimes.com/2011/05/04/us/04sencer.html

Emory A Top Choice for Aspiring Writers
May 4, 2011

Emory University tops a list of the ten best American colleges for writers, according to USA Today in conjunction with the website collegedegree.com.        

Here’s how the website describes Emory’s program:

Ask anyone for the best schools for writers, and Emory will inevitably emerge. With a plethora of outstanding minds flocking to and from Emory every year (be it guest lecturers, students, or alumni), it is no wonder why Emory would be a prime place for a budding writer. Emory offers extraordinary flexibility to its students; the only required course of all English majors is poetry. Emory also allows English majors to double major in creative writing through Emory’s very own undergraduate Creative Writing program, which offers workshops spanning over several genres, including poetry, fiction, creative non-fiction, playwriting, and screenwriting. Students looking for more personal settings with professors will be happy to find that most English classes cap at fifteen students, while the largest cap at twenty-five.

Filling out the list:

2. Hamilton College, Clinton, NY
3. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore
4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA)
5. New York University (New York City)
6. Washington University, St. Louis
7. University of Iowa, Iowa City
8. Columbia University, New York City
9. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
10. Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

To read the entire article, click here.


Faculty Book on Adolf Eichmann Favorably Reviewed by NY Times
April 21, 2011

The New York Times recently reviewed Deborah E. Lipstadt’s new book, The Eichmann Trial. Lipstadt is the Dorot Professor of Jewish Studies at Emory and a well-known scholar of the Holocaust.

According to the review, “Lipstadt has done a great service by untethering the trial from [Hannah] Arendt’s polarizing presence, recovering the event as a gripping legal drama, as well as a hinge moment in Israel’s history and in the world’s delayed awakening to the magnitude of the Holocaust.” Arendt, a political theorist, wrote a controversial book, “Eichmann in Jerusalem,” about Eichmann’s 1961 trial in Jerusalem for war crimes.

Lipstadt’s book begins by detailing how Eichmann was caught. A German-born, half Jewish Argentine man grew suspicious about a man her daughter was dating — chiefly about his obvious anti-semitism and evasive answers about his background. The father wrote about the man to a German prosecutor who happened to be Jewish. That lead to a stealth operation that involved the Mossad, Israel’s intelligence agency, and led to his arrest. He turned out to be Adolf Eichmann. The Mossad captured him and took him to Israel where he stood trial, found guilty of crimes against humanity and hanged in 1962.  

One of the things Lipstadt describes in her book is the realization by Israeli Jews, after hearing testimony by World War II survivors, that they were no tougher or morally superior than their European counterparts (who some had accused of being weak because they hadn’t fought back) and that resisting the Nazis was impossible. She wrote that “some Israelis began to grasp that, rather than constituting a different breed of Jews, they were simply generationally and geographically lucky.” The nation, added the reviewer, suddenly understood the centrality of the Holocaust to its national story.
           
The review goes on to say that when Lipstadt inevitably turns to the influence of Arendt’s book about the Eichmann trial, her conclusions are “rendered calmly and with devastating fairness This is the right tone, since she accuses Arendt of writing with distorting anger and inexcusable carelessness. Lipstadt doesn’t dismiss Arendt’s big conceptual insight about the banality of evil, which she argues has merged (in somewhat more refined terms) with the historiographical conventional wisdom. But she accuses Arendt of ignoring anti-Semitism — and of discounting all the evidence about Eichmann’s centrality in plotting the genocide so that she could portray him as a pathetic bureaucrat.”

To read the entire review, visit
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/10/books/review/book-review-the-eichmann-trial-by-deborah-e-lipstadt.html

To hear the podcast review, visit: http://www.nytimes.com/ref/books/books-podcast-archive.html


Depression among Men Likely to Rise as Employment Balance Between Spouses Changes
March 10, 2011

Emory researchers predict that rates of depressive disorders among men will increase as the twenty-first century progresses. In an editorial published in the March 2011 issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry, author Boadie Dunlop, assistant professor and director of the Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, writes that “compared to women, many men attach a great importance to their roles as providers and protectors of their families. Failure to fulfill the role of breadwinner is associated with greater depression and marital conflict.”

Since the beginning of the recession in 2007, roughly 75 percent of the jobs lost in the United States were held by men. On the other hand, women are increasingly becoming the primary household earners, with 22 percent of wives earning more than their husbands in 2007, versus only 4 percent in 1970, according to Dunlop. But there is little reason to believe that traditional male jobs will return in significant numbers with economic recovery.

Additionally, biological and sociological differences in men and women may make it harder for men to fit into the role of primary provider for young children. “Men in the changing economy will face the same risks for depression that women faced in older economies: trapped in a family role from which they cannot escape because of an inability to find employment,” Dunlop says.

Finally, the expectations for men to be tough, stoic, and hide their feelings is significantly eroding. The growing awareness about mental health through education, and hearing prominent male figures talk about their depression, has had a significant impact in opening up the public space for men to validate symptoms of depression.

One of the most well-established findings in the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders is that women have nearly twice the lifetime risk than men of developing a major depressive disorder. “The changing socioeconomic positions of the West could lead to prevalence in the rates of depression in men increasing, while rates in women decrease,” said Dunlop. “Practitioners need to be aware of these forces of life, and be prepared to explore with their patients the meaning of these changes and interventions that might be helpful.”


Study Finds Mental Health Care for Depressed Adolescents Inequitable Across U.S.
February 24, 2011

An Emory study reinforces suspicions that mental health care across the United States is uneven for children age twelve to seventeen years who suffer from major depression.

Researchers from Emory Rollins School of Public Health, Janet R. Cummings, associate professor of health policy and management, and Benjamin G. Druss, Rosalyn Carter Chair in Mental Health, analyzed five years of data (2004–2008) collected from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health. Their representative sample included 7,704 adolescents from the target age range who had received a diagnosis of major depression within the previous year.

Their paper, “Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use Among Adolescents With Major Depression,” published in the February 2011 edition of Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, indicates that the percentage of non-Hispanic whites who received any major depression treatment was 40 percent, compared with 32 percent in Blacks, 31 percent in Hispanics, and 19 percent in Asians after adjusting for demographics and health status.

Cummings and Druss report that one fourth of all adolescents with major depression received school-based counseling. They write that “Investment in quality improvement programs implemented in primary care settings as well as school-based mental health services may reduce unmet need for mental health services in all adolescents with major depression and reduce the sizeable differences in service use across racial/ethnic groups.”


Egypt and the Muslim Brotherhood: What’s Next?
February 8, 2011

In a February 1 opinion piece on CNN.com, Carrie Rosefsky Wickham, Emory Associate Professor of Political Science, offered her take on what role the Muslim Brotherhood might play in a changing Egypt.

According to Wickham, in the current social and political upheaval, the energetic and more youthful activists will by necessity need to rely on the skill and experience of the older activists’ vision of democracy – those who were the first to prioritize human rights and freedoms – and to merge their complementary strengths.

Where, though, will the Muslim Brotherhood fit into the picture? Wickham writes that the Brotherhood is “a large umbrella organization that encompasses different views and trends. While the group poses no immediate danger to the reform process, it remains a wild card, because its willingness to participate on equal terms with the country’s much smaller secular parties in the formation of a new democratic order is unclear.”

She goes on to say that while the Brotherhood has a presence among the masses, it no longer stands as the defiant ant-establishment movement it once was. The organization has, at least publicly, renounced violence as a means to achieve its domestic agenda of Islamic change. Wickham contends that it has “adopted a stance of caution and pragmatic self-restraint in the face of the overwhelming power of a regime, which treats it as an existential threat. Paradoxically, the Brotherhood’s very size and popularity have prevented it from flexing its political muscles, and launching a direct confrontation with the regime.”

The key question now is whether the Muslim Brotherhood will exercise its current self-restraint if the Mubarak regime falls: “My sense is that it will, for three reasons. First, seizing power for itself is not the Brotherhood’s primary objective. What it wants is the opportunity to spread its message and influence policy, not call the shots by itself. Second, the prominent role of secular political figures, and a large sector of politicized but ideologically unaffiliated youth, in the reform movement, will limit the Brotherhood’s ability to monopolize power even if it wanted to do so. Finally, the Brotherhood is keenly aware that neither the Egyptian military -- the ultimate arbiter of power in the country, or the West, would be likely to welcome a Brotherhood-dominated government.”

However, she continued, whether the Brotherhood will compromise on its demand for sharia rule remains unknown. “At the same time,” Wickham writes, “given the depth of its popular support and more than thirty-year record of responsible behavior, it has earned a place at the table, and no transition to a democratic process can occur without it.”

To read the entire article, visit http://edition.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/02/01/wickham.muslim.brotherhood/
Emory Mathematician Develops New Theory, Formula, to Solve Old Problem
February 2, 2011

While hiking to Tallulah Falls in the North Georgia mountains last September, Ken Ono, Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Mathematics, and postdoctoral fellow Zach Kent, experienced a Eureka moment that led to a solution to an age-old math conundrum.

For centuries, some of the greatest names in math have tried to make sense of partition numbers, which form the the basis for adding and counting.

On the surface, partition numbers seem like mathematical child’s play. A partition of a number is a sequence of positive integers that add up to that number. For example, 4 = 3+1 = 2+2 = 2+1+1 = 1+1+1+1. So there are 5 partitions of the number 4. It’s simple, except when you consider that partition numbers grow at an incredible rate. The amount of partitions for the number 10 is 42. For the number 100, the partitions explode to more than 190,000,000. Until the breakthroughs by Ono’s team, no one was unable to unlock the secret of the complex pattern underlying this rapid growth.

After Ono’s epiphany, and months of follow-up work, he and his research team figured out that partition numbers behave like fractals. The term “fractal” was coined invented in 1980 by Benoit Mandelbrot to describe what seem like irregularities in the geometry of natural forms. The more a viewer zooms into “rough” natural forms, the clearer it becomes that they actually consist of repeating patterns. Not only are fractals beautiful, they have immense practical value in fields as diverse as art to medicine.


The insight unlocked the divisibility properties of partitions and led to a mathematical theory for “seeing” their infinitely repeating superstructure.

“Our work brings completely new ideas to the problems,” said Ono. “We prove that partition numbers are fractal for every prime [number]. These numbers, in a way we make precise, are self-similar in a shocking way. Our ‘zooming’ procedure resolves several open conjectures, and it will change how mathematicians study partitions.”

The new theory reveals a new class of fractals that dispenses with the problem of infinity. “It’s as though we no longer needed to see all the stars in the universe, because the pattern that keeps repeating forever can be seen on a three-mile walk to Tallulah Falls,” Ono said.

The team also devised the first finite formula to calculate the partitions of any number – something mathematicians have been searching for since the eighteenth-century mathematician Leonhard Euler developed the first method of computing partitions.

“We found a function, that we call P, that is like a magical oracle,”  Ono said. “I can take any number, plug it into P, and instantly calculate the partitions of that number. P does not return gruesome numbers with infinitely many decimal places. It’s the finite, algebraic formula that we have all been looking for.”

For more information about Ono and his team’s work, visit:

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn20039-deep-meaning-in-ramanujans-simple-pattern.html
  

http://blogs.plos.org/badphysics/2011/01/20/ono/  

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-01/eu-nmt011911.php


Emory scholar Rudolph Byrd co-authors new introduction to Toomer novel, claims Toomer "passed" as white
January 3, 2011

Jean Toomer, a light-skinned black man of mixed heritage, was best known for his 1923 book Cane, which portrayed African-American life in the early twentieth century. Now, two scholars have concluded that Toomer spent years "passing" as white.  

In a seventy-page introduction to a re-release of Cane, Rudolph P. Byrd, Emory's Goodrich C. White Professor of American Studies, and Harvard Scholar Henry Louis Gates write that their judgment is based on “an analysis of archival evidence previously overlooked by other scholars,” including Toomer’s draft registrations, his and his family’s census records,  and his writings and public statements.

The assertions were covered in a recent New York Times article and a segment on National Public Radio.
           
For example, while Toomer was “was registered as a Negro for the draft in 1942, he had been living as a white man for years in Bucks County, Pa., with Marjorie Content, his second white wife,” according to the Times.
           
Byrd told the Times that the new research “resets the starting point for discussions about Toomer’s racial background, and its influence on his art.”

In the same article, Gates said that thousands of African-Americans since slavery times grew weary of the struggle of being black in American and decided to pass, but that “it is difficult to think of someone who constructed such a complex artifice trying to justify that decision to others but also to himself.”
           
Their assertions have sparked debate. According to the Times article, Toomer biographer Richard Eldridge said that Toomer never "passed" in the classic sense of pretending to be white. He sought instead to transcend standard definitions of race. Eldridge said he had not read the new introduction, but would stand corrected if its case is persuasive.

View the New York Times article.

Listen to the NPR interview.


Inconsistent Dosing Directions and Measuring Devices Found in Over-the-Counter Liquid Children’s Medicines
December 13, 2010

Most liquid over-the-counter children’s medications contain variable and inconsistent dosing directions and measuring devices, according to a new study. Nearly all the products had directions that did not match what was marked on the measuring device.

Results of the study will appear in the December 15 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
           
Researchers examined 200 top-selling oral liquid OTC drugs for children. A standardized measuring device was included with 148 of the products examined. Among those products, confusing information included inconsistencies between dosing directions and markings on the measuring device (98.6 percent); missing markings on measuring devices (24.3 percent); superfluous markings (81.1 percent); atypical units of measurement (5.5 percent); nonstandard abbreviations; and lack of definitions for abbreviations. One-fourth of the products did not contain a dosing device at all, which means parents could have trouble selecting the right amount of medicine.

“This is an issue of patient safety and needs urgent attention,” said Ruth Parker, professor of medicine at Emory’s School of Medicine, who co-led the study. “Given how many products are affected, it seems unlikely that the voluntary guidelines alone set by the FDA and industry will fix this problem. The current guidance does not contain a timeline for compliance or specify consequences for non-compliance. Standards and regulatory oversight will likely be needed to ensure that all products contain label information and dosing device markings that match and are understandable and useful. This is an issue of patient safety.”

The study was conducted over 52 weeks and included 99 percent of the U.S. market of analgesic, cough/cold, allergy, and gastrointestinal OTC oral liquid products with dosing information for children younger than twelve.

In November 2009, in response to reports of unintentional drug overdoses among children given OTC medicines, the FDA released new voluntary industry guidelines that recommended greater consistency and clarity in dosing directions for OTC medications and their measuring devices.

The guidelines recommended that all OTC liquid medications include a measuring device, the product’s device and directions should use the same abbreviations and units of measurement, devices should have only necessary markings and should not hold much more than the largest dose described, abbreviations should be standard and defined and decimals or fractions should be used carefully. They also recommended more research to confirm accurate use of this information by consumers.

For more information about the study, visit http://pubs.ama-assn.org/media/2010jer/1130.dtl#1

Study of Twins Finds Vitamin D Levels Influenced Mostly by Genetics in Winter, Environment in Summer
December 2, 2010

Genetic factors are more influential than environmental factors in determining human levels of vitamin D, but only during wintertime, according to researchers at Emory and in Brazil.

According to Christina Karohl, a visiting scholar in the Department of Medicine, and her colleagues at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, 70 percent of the variation in vitamin D concentration levels during winter are the result of genetic factors. The findings were reported by UPI, Business Week, and other news outlets.

In their paper, the researchers concluded that blood concentrations of vitamin D “are highly heritable during the winter season only. In the summer, environmental conditions (e.g., sun exposure) prevail over genetic backgrounds in determining serum concentrations.”

In the summer, the authors explained, 53 percent of the variation in vitamin D concentrations were the result of shared environmental factors, and 47 percent to unique environmental factors.

The study is scheduled for publication in the December issue of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (AJCN). Karohl and her colleagues looked at 510 middle-age men: 310 identical twins and 200 fraternal twins who were living in different North American locations. Generalized estimating equations and structural equation models were used to test the association between levels of Vitamin D and other study factors.

Vitamin D is necessary for maintaining health. Most foods contain little or no vitamin D, so it must be manufactured by the body. Exposure to sunlight is thought to be a key factor in the process.

According to a statement from the AJCN, “Future studies designed to better understand what these factors are will be especially useful as public health experts continue to explore ways to increase vitamin D status in different populations living under varying environmental and dietary situations.”


Meditation Rewires the Brain
November 1, 2010

Researchers at a number of institutions, including Charles Raison of the Department of Psychiatry at Emory, say that meditation can change brain circuitry, according to the CNN Belief Blog.

Richard Davidson, a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison and a long-time practitioner of Buddhist meditation, told CNN that he and his team have evidence that meditation permanently changes the brain for the better. “We all know that if you engage in certain kinds of exercise on a regular basis you can strengthen certain muscle groups in predictable ways,” said Davidson. “Strengthening neural systems is not fundamentally different. It’s basically replacing certain habits of mind with other habits.”

Davidson and his team have scanned the brain activity of scores of Buddhist monks and other meditators. In one recent study, they found that novice meditators stimulated their limbic systems – the  brain’s emotional network – during the ancient practice of compassion meditation. Davidson said that was not a big surprise, because one aim of compassion meditation is to produce the specific emotional state of intense empathy. Buddhist monks who have meditated for more than 10,000 hours showed much higher limbic system activation.

Contemplative neuroscience, the field of neuroscience that studies the effects of meditation, is not without controversy. The article stated that “scientists have scanned just a few hundred brains on meditation do date, which makes for a pretty small research sample.” And some scientists say researchers are over eager to use brain science to prove the that meditation ‘works.’

Recently, the field has gained increased funding from the National Institutes of Health, some of which has gone to Emory. “This is a field that has been populated by true believers,” says Emory's Charles Raison, who has studied meditation’s effect on the immune system. “Many of the people doing this research are trying to prove scientifically what they already know from experience, which is a major flaw.”

To read the entire article, click here.


A Different Kind of Midlife Crisis: Baby Boomers and Suicide
October 14, 2010

Baby boomers appear to be driving a dramatic rise in suicide rates among middle-aged people, according to a study co-authored by Emory sociologist Ellen Idler.

“The findings are disturbing, because they’re a reversal of a long-standing trend,” Idler says. The findings were published in the September/October 2020 issue of Public Health Reports.

The overall suicide rate for the U.S. population has been declining for decades, according to Idler. People aged 40 to 59, in particular, have long had a moderate suicide rate. But the baby boomers, people born between 1945 and 1964, have broken that pattern. By 2000, most people aged 40 to 59 were baby boomers and the suicide rate started climbing steadily in that age range. 

The authors found significant increases of more than 2 percent per year for men and more than 3 percent per year for women from 1999 to 2005. (By 2005, all middle-aged people were baby boomers.) The post-1999 increase has been particularly dramatic for those who are unmarried and those without a college degree, the analysis showed. Middle-aged people with a college degree appeared largely protected from the trend.
The baby boomers also experienced higher suicide rates during their adolescence and young adulthood, doubling the rate for those age groups at the time. Their suicide rate then declined slightly and stabilized, before beginning to increase again in midlife.

“You might think that the higher rates in adolescence would lead to lower rates later because the most suicide prone people would be gone but that doesn’t appear to be the case,” Idler says. “Clinical studies often show that knowing someone who committed suicide is considered a risk factor for later doing it yourself, and that may be one factor here. The high rates in adolescence could actually be contributing to the high rates in middle age.”

Traditionally, midlife has been considered a time when people are at their peak of social integration. “We need to pay attention to this new increase in suicides during a period of life previously thought to be stable and relatively protected from suicide, and in an age group now occupied by extraordinarily large numbers of people,” Idler says.


Threat of Malpractice Suit Make Physicians Play Defense
September 24, 2010

In the August 31 issue of The Washington Post, Manoj Jain, an infectious disease specialist an adjunct assistant professor at the Rollins School of Public Health, wrote about his experience of being sued for malpractice. Right after he read the notice that a malpractice suit was being considered, Jain was stunned: “My white coat, which held the daily tools of my profession — my list of patients, the Sanford antibiotic manual, a black stethoscope — felt extraordinarily heavy.” The patient had died about a year earlier, but Jain couldn’t recall him or his own “alleged misdeed.”

He wondered if he “had I missed a lab test among the hundreds that I order each week? Had I failed to read a blood culture report? Had some error of mine resulted in his death?” He pored over the charts, his pulse racing and his palms moist. But he couldn’t find anything that suggested negligence. Yet he still stood accused.

Jain noted that, according to a 2004 review in the New England Journal of Medicine, most malpractice suits are filed against doctors who were not at fault, and that “some researchers have likened our malpractice system to a traffic cop who gives out a hundred tickets to nab seventeen drivers who have run a red light, in the process ticketing eight-three who drove through a green light quite properly.”
           
Almost immediately, the threat of being sued had an impact on Jain’s clinical decisions: “The next day, I was considering whether to order a CT scan for a hospital patient experiencing abdominal pain. On the one hand, I did not think the scan would reveal anything significant, and I try to avoid ordering unnecessary tests. But then I thought about a potential lawsuit. . . .The fear of a lawsuit trumped all other thinking: I ordered the scan; it was negative.”

To read the complete article, click here.


An Ancient Toast To Health, of Sorts
September 9, 2010

Emory researchers have found evidence that an ancient culture added antibiotics to its beer, according to an article on the Discovery website. George Armelagos, Goodrich C. White Professor of Anthropology, found that the bones of 2,000-year-old African mummies contained large doses of tetracycline. In addition, the antibiotic probably made it into their bodies from beer. 

“While the modern age of antibiotics began in 1928 with the discovery of penicillin, the new findings suggest that people knew how to fight infections much earlier than that – even if they didn't actually know what bacteria were,” the article says. It went on to say that, according to Armelagos, the first people who may have used antibiotics may have lived along the shores of the Nile in Sudanese Nubia, now the modern border region between Egypt and Sudan.

“Given the amount of tetracycline there, they had to know what they were doing,” Armelagos told Discovery.com. “They may not have known what tetracycline was, but they certainly knew something was making them feel better.”

Armelagos “was part of a group of anthropologists that excavated the mummies in 1963,” said the article. “His original goal was to study osteoporosis in the Nubians, who lived between about 350 and 550 A.D. But while looking through a microscope at samples of the ancient bone under ultraviolet light, he saw what looked like tetracycline – an antibiotic that was not officially patented in modern times until 1950.”

He likened the shock of the discovery to “unwrapping a mummy, and all of a sudden, you see a pair of Ray Ban sunglasses on it.”

To read the entire article, click here. 


Justice for Long-Ago Crimes too Long in Coming
August 25, 2010

Hank Klibanoff, newly appointed James M. Cox Jr. Professor of Journalism, wrote about the glacially slow pace of U.S. justice in the August 8 Washington Post.

He focuses on the Justice Department’s attempts to solve 109 racially motivated murder cases in the South during the 1950s and 1960s. The Justice Department prosecuted only two of those cases, while closing fifty-four without prosecution.
           
“The Justice Department has a good track record of putting Klan terrorists behind bars when they get into court,” wrote Klibanoff. “But it has had trouble turning long-standing pleas and evidence from victims’ families, as well as the hundreds of thousands of civil rights cold-case records in its files, into active investigations, witness and evidence development, and courtroom showdowns.”
           
In fact, not a single one of the 109 crimes, nor many other murders, has generated a single case by the Justice Department or the FBI.
           
“Every case that Justice has successfully prosecuted has been the result of work by investigative reporters,” Klibanoff continued. “The killers of Medgar Evers; the four little girls in the Birmingham church; Vernon Dahmer; Ben Chester White; and Michael Schwerner, James Chaney and Andrew Goodman would not have been prosecuted and convicted without the discoveries made by reporter Jerry Mitchell of the Clarion-Ledger in Jackson, Miss.”
           
Klibanoff goes on to discuss cases such as the 1965 killing of Jimmie Lee Jackson, which triggered Bloody Sunday and the Selma-to-Montgomery march. But that happened only after Anniston Star reporter John Fleming revealed that Alabama state trooper James Bonard Fowler admitted to pulling the trigger.
           
He concludes by calling for greater action in prosecuting these unresolved crimes.

To read the entire Washington Post article, click here.


Setting the record straight on "Lift "Ev'ry Voice"
August 4, 2010

In a recent article at CNN.com, Rudolph Byrd, Goodrich C. White Professor of African American Studies, disputed a colleague’s claims about James Weldon’s hymn “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing.” Some have called the hymn a Black national anthem.

Timothy Askew, an associate professor of English at Clark Atlanta University, had written in a previous article that the song was not written specifically in reference to race or ethnicity. Byrd took exception to that claim, and wrote that it was “not only historically inaccurate but also are potentially harmful to Johnson’s legacy as a pioneering figure in the modern civil rights movement.”

After Johnson had agreed to address a celebration of Abraham Lincoln’s birthday in 1900, he also wrote, along with his brother, “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing.”

“As Johnson composed his loving tribute to his race and nation, ” Byrd continued. “He wept: ‘I could not keep back the tears, and made no effort to do so.’" On the occasion of its debut, the hymn was sung by 500 African-American children. . . . The context then for the composition of ‘Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing’ was an early Black History Month celebration organized by the black leadership of Jacksonville, Florida, decades before this tradition was institutionalized by the African-American historian and Harvard PhD Carter G. Woodson.

“Not only does Askew mistakenly claim that Johnson composed his hymn without any ‘specific reference to any race or ethnicity,’ but he applies this erroneous, ahistorical and decontexualized reading to the lyrics themselves.”

Askew, concludes Byrd, “performs a certain violence upon a hymn cherished by many as well as Johnson’s legacy.”

—Steve Frandzel

To read Byrd’s complete article, visit here.
To read the article containing Askew’s comments, visit here.


A Poet Returns Home
July 28, 2010

In the July 6 issue of The New Yorker, Pulitzer-prize winning poet Natasha Trethewey spoke about her series of poems, “Congregation,” the second installment of Virginia Quarterly Review’s In Verse multimedia collaboration with “Studio 360 with Kurt Andersen. Here are excerpts from that interview:

What inspired “Congregation”?

“Congregation” and the book it’s part of, Beyond Katrina: A Meditation on the Mississippi Gulf Coast, which is due out in September, is very much a pilgrimage, a journey back to my childhood home. My family story is interwoven with the larger story of the history of Gulfport; my brother’s story in particular is emblematic of the kinds of losses and devastation suffered by the people on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It’s a story I know intimately, and one that I believe sheds light on the larger story still unfolding in towns all along the coast.

The concept of “documentary poetry” is fascinating, and also somewhat counterintuitive. How does being tied to the truth affect your ability to make poetic leaps?

Well, sometimes you get lucky, and what people do is just poetic. What makes “Benediction” my favorite of the poems is its sheer observation of the day my brother [Joel] got out of jail. He was with his friends and fellow inmates waving and wishing him well, to go out and start that new life that he had ahead of him. That wasn’t so hard to do. It wasn’t hard to sit back and look at that and find what was figurative about it.
            The hardest poem for me in “Congregation” is a contemplation of the meanings of words. I had been very concerned with the meaning of my name when I was writing my last book. My mother was murdered by my step-father, my brother’s father, who was also named Joel, twenty-five years ago. Whatever sadness or burden I’ve been living with since then, my brother’s also been living with, but he’s lived with the added burden of having the exact same name as our mother’s murderer. It had never occurred to me, the way he was imprisoned in his own name.

To view the entire interview, visit The New Yorker here.


Air, Water Pollution Major Cause of Death and Disease in China
July 16, 2010

China’s booming economy has lifted millions of its citizens out of poverty. But according to a review co-authored by Emory researcher Justin Remais, air and water pollution still cause a significant number of deaths and diseases in the country. The review appeared in a special China issue of The Lancet (March 27), which examined the air and water quality concerns and the steps the nation has taken toward addressing the problems.

“Facing the overlap of traditional, modern and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement,” says Remais, associate professor of environmental and occupational health. “The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.”

Indoor air pollution from burning solid fuels is one of the main environmental health risk factors, and leads to about 420,000 premature deaths every year, Remais and his colleagues said. The major health problems associated with air pollution include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lower respiratory infection, and lung cancer.

The sources of outdoor air pollution in China include residential and industrial coal combustion, a growing transport sector, chemical releases from industry, outdoor burning of agricultural waste, and dust from construction, roads and deserts, according to the authors . The economic cost of mortality and morbidity that results from outdoor air pollution in a typical Chinese city was about ten percent of that city’s gross domestic product in 2000, and, depending on future technology and policies, that cost is predicted to range from eight percent to sixteen percent by 2020.

The review also noted that a high number of lakes and major rivers in China are classified as severely polluted, with only half of China’s 200 major rivers and less than a quarter of its twenty-eight major lakes and reservoirs suitable for use as drinking water after treatment.


A Tale of Two Disasters
July 12, 2010

In a June 22 opinion piece in the Wall Street Journal, Paul Rubin, professor of economics, describes the British Petroleum oil disaster and Hurricane Katrina as mirror images of each other. For example, Katrina harmed state land, and President Bush and the federal government’s powers were limited. But the oil spill occurred on federal offshore territory, for which the federal government has primary responsibility.
           
“As opposed to Katrina, state and local attempts to address the oil spill have been hindered by an ineffectual and chaotic federal response,” said Rubin.
           
Another contrast: “Mr. Bush was a Republican, and elected Democrats controlled Louisiana and New Orleans, the main victims of Katrina,” said Rubin. “Many claimed Mr. Bush neglected New Orleans for this reason. Mr. Obama is a Democrat, and the states affected by Deepwater Horizon—Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida—all have Republican governors. I have not seen anyone, even on the right, claim that the ineffectual response of the Obama administration is due to partisan politics.”
           
The final difference, he concluded, is how the press has handled the two disasters: “Mr. Bush responded quickly to Katrina but was handicapped by regulations giving power to the states. Nonetheless, the federal response was well coordinated and helpful overall. But Mr. Bush was rapidly and widely blamed for the result of Katrina and for failures that actually occurred at other levels of government.
           
“Now Mr. Obama has much more power than did Mr. Bush, but the federal response is ineffective and often stands in the way of those in the best position to know what to do. It is only in the last week or two that the mainstream press has voiced any criticism of Mr. Obama.”

View the complete article


Irish Poet’s Papers Land at Emory
June 28, 2010

Irish poet Eamon Grennan has placed his papers with Emory’s Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library (MARBL).

“We couldn’t be more pleased to welcome both Eamon and his papers to Emory,” said Naomi Nelson, interim director of MARBL. The collection contains poem drafts, poetry notebooks, academic papers and lectures, handwritten personal journals, and electronic records.

Grennan’s papers join a world-renowned Irish literary collection at MARBL, which includes the papers of writers and poets such as W.B. Yeats, Seamus Heaney, Derek Mahon, and Paul Muldoon.

“Being a fellow inhabitant of what I feel is an Irish Village there in Emory pleases me very much, feels right to me in ways no other location could,” Grennan said by e-mail in early June.

Kevin Young, Haygood Professor of English and Curator of Literary Collections of the Raymond Danowski Poetry Library at MARBL, announced the pending acquisition when Grennan was a guest reader in April.

Grennan said at the reading he felt that with his papers being placed at MARBL, he had another home at Emory. “I will, every so often, have to visit myself,” he said.

A Dublin native and Irish citizen, Grennan has lived in the United States for more than three decades. He was educated at University College in Dublin and Harvard University and taught at Vassar College for 30 years, where he was the Dexter M. Ferry Jr. Professor of English.

Grennan is considered one of the premier poets and translators working today. His books include Leopardi: Selected Poems, which earned the 1997 PEN Award for Poetry in Translation, and his own Still Life with Waterfall, which received the Lenore Marshall Award for Poetry from the American Academy of Poets. His next book, Out of Sight: New and Selected Poems, is due out in July.


Psychology Professor Earns Major Grant for Work on Mentally Challenged Children
June 11, 2010

Stella Lourenco, an assistant professor of psychology, has been awarded a $300,000 grant over four years by the John Merck Fund for her outstanding neurobiological and cognitive post-doctoral research.

“This program is an effort to encourage exceptional young individuals to focus on the problems of children who are mentally challenged and emotionally disturbed. We have made similar grants through the John Merck Scholars Program in the Biology of Developmental Disabilities in Children for twenty years, awards which we hope will add significantly to the knowledge base in this highly neglected and under-financed field,” said Dina Buechner-Vischer, John Merck Fund co-chair.

Lourenco is among only three recipients who were selected for their achievements from a pool of eighty applicants. Her research concerns the development of spatial perception and cognition, including representation of geometric information, sex differences, spatial reasoning in atypical populations, the influence of tool use in space perception, and the spatial nature of numerical representation.

The other recipients of the award are Yingxi Lin, an assistant professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who is studying activity-dependent regulation of GABAergic synapses and neural circuit plasticity, and Adam Kepecs, an Assistant Professor at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, who is researching functional dissection of the central cholinergic system in cognition.


Report Projects Staggering Costs of Obesity a Decade from Now
June 4, 2010

Rising obesity rates will cost the nation nearly $350 billion by 2018, according to a recently released report based on Emory research.

The report, titled “The Future Cost of Obesity: National and State Estimates of the Impact of Obesity on Direct Health Care Expenses,” relies heavily on work by Ken Thorpe, Woodruff Professor and Chair of the Rollins School of Public Health, and executive director of the Partnership to Fight Chronic Disease. It is the first report to estimate obesity prevalence and costs at the state and national levels ten years from now.

If current trends continue, the report says, 43 percent of U.S. adults will be obese and obesity spending will quadruple to $344 billion by 2018; however, if obesity rates are held at current levels, the U.S. would save nearly $200 billion in health care costs.

“At a time when Congress is looking for savings in health care, this data confirms what we already knew: obesity is where the money is,” said Thorpe. “Because obesity is related to the onset of so many other illnesses, stopping the growth of obesity in the U.S. is vital not only to our health—but also to the solvency of our health care system.”

The report projects that obesity will surpass 50 percent of the adult population in six states (Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota) with an associated increase in health spending linked to obesity of more than $1,600 per person.

Projected obesity rates will remain below 35 percent in only four states (Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Virginia)  and the District of Columbia; nevertheless, obesity-attributable health spending will climb to more than $800 per person by 2018 in each of those places.


An Ancient Fish Trail
May 20, 2010

A rare type of fossil found in southwestern Wyoming has provided new insights into the ancient ecology of the former Fossil Lake. The fossil is not of the fish itself, but of the trail it made along the bottom of the lake. Such trace fossils are extremely rare.

When the National Park Service identified about a dozen such fossils, they asked Emory paleontologist Anthony Martin to investigate. Martin specializes in trace fossils, including tracks, trails, burrows, and nests made by animals millions of years ago.

One of them intrigued Martin because it showed not only the apparent fin impressions of two wavy lines, but also squiggles, suggesting oval shapes.

“The oval impressions stayed roughly in the center of the wavy lines and slightly overlapped one another,” said Martin, a senior lecturer in the Department of Environmental Studies. “I realized that these marks were probably made by the mouth as the fish fed along the bottom,” Martin said. He then deduced that the trace was likely made by N. osculus – the only species found in the same rock layer whose fossils show a mouth pointing downward. “We’ve got a snapshot of N. osculus interacting with the bottom of a lake that disappeared millions of years ago. It’s a fleeting glimpse, but it’s an important one.”

The evidence is the first to show that N. osculus fed from the bottom of the lake, Martin explained. “Not only that, the fish was bottom feeding in the deepest part of the lake. Previous research had suggested that the bottom of the lake had such low levels of oxygen that it was hostile to life.”

To read more about the discovery, click here.

Emory Conducting Landmark Study to Treat ALS
May 10, 2010

Emory University researchers are participating in a groundbreaking clinical trial to treat patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using human neural stem cells.

The Phase 1 trial, will assess the safety of stem cells, and the surgical procedures and devices required, for multiple injections of the cells directly into the spinal cord.

“This is the first U.S. clinical trial of stem cell injections into the spinal cord for the treatment of ALS,” says principal researcher Jonathan Glass, professor of neurology in the School of Medicin, and director of the Emory ALS Center. “Our main goal in this early phase is to determine whether it is safe to inject stem cells into the spinal cord and whether the cells themselves are safe.”

Three patients with ALS have received injections since the trial began in January. Up to twelve individuals will be enrolled at in this phase of the trial.

Nicholas Boulis, assistant professor of neurosurgery I the School of Medicine and a pioneer in developing surgical methods for delivery of therapeutics to the spinal cord, is performing the surgical procedures.

Also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with no known cure. It causes the deterioration of specific nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord called motor neurons that control muscle movement. As the illness progresses, patients lose their ability to walk, talk, and breathe. According to the ALS Association, approximately 30,000 Americans have ALS at any given time and patients with the disease usually die within two to five years of diagnosis.

The stem cells used in the study may have the ability to mature into various types of cells in the nervous system, including the motor neurons lost because of ALS. They will not generate new motor neurons, but may help protect the still-functioning neurons and slow the progression of the disease.

To watch an interview with Jonathan Glass, visit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tln2i19wUs


Can Political Polarization Be Good For Democracy?
May 3, 2010

Alan Abramowitz, professor of political science, described in a recent Washington Post article how polarization can actually benefit the democratic process. While it seems to be a  matter of faith in this country that polarization and the lack of bipartisanship is bad for American democracy, Abramowitz contends that, when not taken too far, polarization invigorates the political process. “A certain amount of polarization and partisan conflict can actually be very beneficial in a democracy… And the evidence from recent elections indicates that far from turning off ordinary Americans, partisan polarization has led to increased levels of interest and participation among the public,” he wrote.
           
Abramowitz points to the high voter turnout in 2008 and expected similar enthusiasm in the upcoming midterm elections. In addition, citizens are displaying more yard signs and bumper stickers, and giving more money to candidates and political parties.
           
He also asserts that the gridlock that critics of polarization cite as evidence of its negative effects is not all bad: “The main reason for gridlock in Washington is not polarization but anti-majoritarian rules such as the Senate filibuster that allow a determined minority to block the will of the majority. “Polarization can actually help to overcome gridlock in government by increasing party discipline so that after an election the majority party can enact its policy agenda.”

Visit this link to read Abramowitz's entire essay.


American Academy of Arts and Sciences Elects Emory Scholar
April 22, 2010

Shoshana Felman, Robert Woodruff  Distinguished Professor of Comparative Literature and French, has been elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, one of the nation’s most prestigious honorary societies and a center for independent policy research.

“Shoshana Felman has pushed the boundaries of multiple disciplines through her writing, research, and teaching on the complex relationships between French and comparative literature, and on basic insights of the humanities at large,” said Provost Earl Lewis. “She has explored the links between literature and psychoanalysis, philosophy, theater, women's studies, Holocaust studies, testimony, trauma and the law.”

Felman is the author of ten books and dozen of essays. She recently issued new editions of her major books initially published in France: The Scandal of the Speaking Body and Writing and Madness: Literature/ Philosophy/Psychoanalysis. In 1993 she contributed to the fields of education and feminist reflection her collection of essays, What Does a Woman Want?  
           
Her recent work deals with law and its relation to fundamental ethical, psychoanalytic and literary questions – a continuing investigation that began with Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis and History (1992), and continued in The Juridical Unconscious: Trials and Traumas in the Twentieth Century (2002). The Claims of Literature: A Shoshana Felman Reader (2007), gathers her most influential and exemplary essays, as well as short responses to her work by leading theorists.

A center for independent policy research, the Academy celebrates the 230th anniversary of its founding this year. Its scholars, scientists, jurists, writers, artists, civic, corporate and philanthropic leaders include winners of the Nobel, Pulitzer, and Shaw Prizes; MacArthur and Guggenheim fellows; and Grammy, Tony, and Oscar Award-winners. Felman is among 229 new leaders elected in the sciences, the humanities and the arts, business, public affairs and the nonprofit sector.

Law Professor Recounts Supreme Court Justice’s Commitment to the Rule of Law
April 15, 2010

In a recent opinion piece on CNN.com, Robert Schapiro, professor of law, recounted the distinguished career of retiring Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens. According to Schapiro, Stevens probably will be best remembered for his insightful opinions about cases of great national significance, but he “should also be remembered for his equally compelling commitment to justice in scores of other decisions that received little public notice.”

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld in 2006 was one of those. Writing for the majority, Stevens said that the president must follow the law, regardless of a real threat of terrorism. “For Stevens, no person was above the law, and no person was below the law,” wrote Schapiro, who served as a clerk for Justice Stevens in 1991 and 1992.            
One of Stevens’ defining characteristics was ensuring justice in all cases. In the 2000 presidential election decision, Bush v. Gore, he wrote a stinging dissent, “castigating the majority for undermining the ‘Nation’s confidence in the judge as an impartial guardian of the rule of law.’” His commitment to the rule of law, Schapiro continued, “transcended partisan boundaries.” In 1997, Stevens wrote that the Constitution did not shield President Clinton from civil suits.
           
Schapiro concluded: “Justice Stevens pursued justice in all cases, great and small. The rule of law has lost an important champion on our nation's highest court.”

Click here to see the entire article.


Why the “States’ Rights” Argument is Unlikely to Defeat the Health Care Bill
April 9, 2010

A significant number of Republicans have challenged the legality of the recently enacted health care bill. In a recent article on Politico, Joseph Crespino, an associate professor of  history, explains some of the historical underpinnings of states’ rights, on which many opponents of the bill rest their arguments to repeal it, and why they are not likely to succeed.

“White Southerners invoked states’ rights to oppose a range of civil rights laws in the past century — anti-lynching measures in the 1930s, fair employment legislation in the ’40s, school desegregation in the ’50s and open housing in the ’60s,” writes Crespino. But, he adds,
Their objections “never stopped them from enjoying the fruits of federal dollars. Some of the most recalcitrant Southern states were the biggest beneficiaries of Washington largesse.”

He continues by saying that invoking states’ rights became more popular among white Southerners as the civil rights movement reached its peak during the decade beginning in the mid-1950s. For example: “In 1962, South Carolina joined Georgia in this show of support for states’ rights when it voted to fly the Confederate battle flag above its Capitol dome in Columbia.”  

But, he adds, “There are notable differences between the current arguments and those of the civil rights era. . . . The big difference is that states’ rights defenders of the civil rights era were united by region, not party, as is predominantly the case today.”
           
For this and other reasons, concludes Crespino, the current campaign for states rights may be no more successful than previous efforts.

To view the entire article, visit http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0310/34948.html


Fastest Water Oxidation Catalyst Makes Hydrogen Fuel a Little Closer
March 23, 2010

Emory chemists have developed the most potent homogeneous catalyst known for water oxidation, considered a crucial component for generating clean hydrogen fuel using only water and sunlight. The breakthrough, to be published in Science, was made in collaboration with the Paris Institute of Molecular Chemistry.

The fastest, carbon-free molecular water oxidation catalyst (WOC) to date “has really upped the standard from the other known homogeneous WOCs,” said Emory inorganic chemist Craig Hill, whose lab led the effort. “It’s like a home run compared to a base hit.”

To be viable, a WOC needs selectivity, stability and speed. Homogeneity is also a desired trait, because it boosts efficiency and makes the WOC easer to study and optimize. The new WOC has all of these qualities, and it is based on the cheap and abundant element cobalt, adding to its potential to help solar energy go mainstream.

Benjamin Yin, an undergraduate student in Hill’s lab, is the lead author on the Science paper. The U.S. Department of Energy funded the work.

The WOC research is a component of the Emory Bio-inspired Renewable Energy Center (EBREC), which aims to mimic natural processes such as photosynthesis to generate clean fuel. The next step involves incorporating the WOC into a solar-driven, water-splitting system. View more information on sustainable energy research at Emory and EBREC.

The long-term goal is to use sunlight to split water into oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen becomes the fuel, and its combustion produces the byproduct water.

For decades, scientists have been trying to imitate Mother Nature and create a WOC for artificial photosynthesis. Nearly all of the more than forty homogeneous WOCs developed by labs have had significant limitations, such as containing organic components that burn up quickly during the water oxidation process.

Two years ago, Hill’s lab and collaborators developed the first prototype of a stable, homogenous, carbon-free WOC, which also worked faster than others known at the time. The prototype, however, was based on ruthenium, a relatively rare and expensive element.
Building on that work, the researchers began experimenting with the cheaper and more abundant element cobalt. The cobalt-based WOC has proved even faster than the ruthenium version for light-driven water oxidation.


Rushdie Will Write a Book About Life in Hiding
March 10, 2010

Salman Rushdie’s recent announcement that he would write about his years in hiding after a fatwa was issued by the Supreme Leader of Iran has, not surprisingly, garnered substantial attention in the media.

Rushdie, Emory’s Distinguished Writer in Residence, revealed his plans during the public opening of his archives and accompanying multi-media exhibition, “A World Mapped by Stories: The Salman Rushdie Archive.” The exhibition will be on display in the Robert W. Woodruff Library’s Schatten Gallery through September 26, 2010.

The archive includes the author’s manuscripts, drawings, journals, letters, photographs, and digital materials. It also includes several computers, which hold the complete digital environments in which Rushdie worked. In addition to providing a searchable database of the files, Emory has developed emulations of the original machines that will allow researchers to see and experience the files as Rushdie did when he used them.

The Associated Press and a number of other news outlets recounted Rushdie’s time in hiding after the Grand Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa in 1989 ordering Muslims to kill him because his book, “The Satanic Verses,” insulted Islam. In 1998, the Iranian government said it would no longer support the fatwa, but neither did it rescind it.

At a news conference, Rushdie said that “It's my story, and at some point, it needs to be told. That point is getting closer, I think. When it was in cardboard boxes and dead computers, it would have been very, very difficult, but now it's all organized.”

The exhibit will be on display in the Woodruff library through September.   


It's Not Just A Good Idea, It's the Law
February 24, 2010

Sidney Perkowitz would like Hollywood to break the laws of physics a little more selectively. Perkowitz, a Candler Professor of Physics, was featured in recent article in the Guardian.
           
For instance, the giant killer bugs in Starship Troopers would collapse under their own weight because their proportions did not scale up along with their size. Perkowitz told the Guardian that he liked the movie, aside from the faulty bio-mechanics of the big bugs. He didn’t like The Core, the story of scientists who plant and detonate a nuclear device at the center of the earth to start the core spinning again—over the top in so many ways.
           
Perkowitz said that sci-fi movies should be allowed only one major transgression of the laws of physics, and he created a set of guidelines in the hope that Hollywood curbs some its worst abuses by confining scriptwriters to plotlines that embrace the suspension of disbelief but stop short of demanding it in every scene.

“I am not offended if they make one big scientific blunder in a given film,” Perkowitz said. “You can have things move faster than the speed of light if you want. But after that I would like things developed in a coherent way.”

To see the entire article, visit http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/feb/21/hollywood-films-obey-laws-science.


Emory Researcher Links Plantation Diary to Faulkner Novel
February 19, 2010

An Emory researcher has found striking connections between a mid-1800s plantation diary and William Faulkner’s 1942 novel “Go Down, Moses,” and other Faulkner stories. One notable discovery was that the names of the slaves recorded in the diary matched those in the book.
           
Sally Wolff-King, an adjunct professor of English and scholar of Southern literature, who uncovered the link between Faulkner’s work and the journal, said in a New York Times article that the discovery was a “once-in-a-lifetime literary find. The diary and a number of family stories seem to have provided the philosophical and thematic power for some of his major works.” Wolff-King also spoke about her findings recently on NPR.
           
John Lowe, an English, a professor at Louisiana State University who is writing a book on Faulkner told the Times that this was “one of the most sensational literary discoveries of recent decades.”
           
The original diary manuscript was written by Francis Terry Leak, a wealthy Mississippi plantation owner. According to the Times article, the document appears to be the basis for the ledger that Faulkner wrote about in the novel, as well as a source of many of the names in the fictional account of Yoknapatawpha County. The article reports that the names of the slaves owned by Leak — Caruthers, Moses, Isaac, Sam, Toney, Mollie, Edmund, and Worsham — all appear in some form in “Go Down, Moses.” Other recorded names, like Candis (Candace in the book) and Ben, show up in “The Sound and The Fury” (1929) while Old Rose, Henry, Ellen, and Milly are characters in “Absalom, Absalom!” (1936).
           
Wolff-King first saw the ledger while she was researching a book about people who Faulkner knew. She met with Leak’s great-grandson Edgar Wiggin Francisco Jr., an alumnus of Emory who lives in Atlanta. His wife suggested he show Wolff-King a copy of the ledger, which included a facsimile of a page listing dollar amounts paid for individual slaves.
            
“At that moment I realized this diary may not only have influenced the ledger and slave sale record in ‘Go Down, Moses’ but also likely served an important source for much of William Faulkner’s work,” Wolff-King told the Times.
           
To read the entire New York Times article, visit http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/11/books/11faulkner.html?scp=1&sq=faulkner%20link&st=cse

To listen to the NPR interview, visit http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123614264

Two New Minors Available Fall 2010
February 15, 2010

Emory is expanding its portfolio of undergraduate programs, bringing the total number to fifty-seven undergraduate minors.  

This fall, two new minors—Media Studies and Sustainability—will be available, according to the Director of Student Academic Services Operations, Lee Smith. 

Sustainability continues to be an emerging discipline among students. Anthropology Professor and Faculty Liaison to the Office of Sustainability Initiatives Peggy Barlett says that “the new Sustainability minor will support students’ understandings of the ‘triple bottom line’ of social, environmental, and economic dimensions of contemporary sustainability challenges, as well as the cultural beliefs and political strategies emerging around the world.  Students in literature, sciences, and social sciences will find rich cross-fertilization of their thinking as they learn analytical and ethical approaches through the minor.”

Students minoring in sustainability will be required to demonstrate their developing body of knowledge with an electronic portfolio, written over the course of the minor and reviewed by a faculty steering committee. Peter Wakefield, director of undergraduate studies in the Institute Liberal Arts department will help students interested in more information on the minor. “Another requirement of the new minor that lets students apply their sustainability interests,” says Wakefield, “is an approved Capstone Project that integrates classroom work with experimental learning through research, internship or other activity. This project will strengthen social and technical skills and offer experience with a hands-on project.” 

Professor and Chair of the Film Studies department Matthew H. Bernstein explained that “the new interdisciplinary minor in media studies will draw on resources in thirteeh departments and programs to combine social science, humanities and performing arts perspectives on various media forms that pervade our world today.” The minor will allow students to explore the media’s social impact and its industrial organization, to evaluate critically many kinds of media texts, and to appreciate the nature of creativity in various forms, nationally and internationally. “We truly believe that equipping Emory students with the tools they need to become media literate, media savvy and media fluent is one of the vital roles of liberal education: creating an engaged citizenship in the twenty-first century,” says Bernstein.

With the new media studies minor, students can pursue one of two tracks—media arts and cultures or sociocultural approaches to media. Bernstein says “each track provides a seven-course structure that retains flexibility in terms of courses from several departments, including anthropology, film studies, interdisciplinary studies, journalism, sociology, visual arts, and area studies from around the college.” 

More information on both minors can be found on the Emory College of Arts and Sciences website (http://college.emory.edu/minors).  


$2.4 Million Grant to Support Changes in Humanities
February 10, 2010

Emory has received a $2.4 million grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to support the reassessment, reconfiguration, and strengthening of the humanities across the university.

“Given the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of inquiry and the development of new methodological tools, the university has been anticipating the need for strategic changes in hiring, departmental intellectual configuration, research, publication and scholarly collaborations,” said Earl Lewis, provost and executive vice president for academic affairs.

“At Emory and throughout higher education,” Lewis continued, “these changes are expected to accelerate further in the coming decade. Hiring in the humanities will need to be done very differently in the future. Emory is anticipating hiring a new generation in the humanities who will have both deep training in the humanities and broad training in other areas.”
           
He cited as an example the interdisciplinary collaborations surrounding this month’s opening of the Salman Rushdie archive, much of which was born digital material.

At the core of the program will be the recruitment of a cohort of junior and mid-career faculty across the humanities, said Claire Sterk, senior vice provost for academic affairs. These new faculty will form the core of a “Society of Fellows” who will work to help guide how humanities departments and faculty can export principles of humanistic inquiry across the university. They also will seek opportunities for transformation of the humanities themselves at Emory.
           
Sterk said that refocusing the humanities could have multiple impacts on higher education and help define the future role of the liberal arts at a research university:  “Emory will have wonderful opportunities to show how research scholarship in the humanities really contributes to the common good.”

To read the full announcement, visit http://tiny.cc/humanitiesgrant


Changing Dynamics of Black Politics Fascinates Political Science Professor
February 2, 2010

Andra Gillespie, an assistant professor of political science, recently spoke with the Atlanta Journal Constitution about her two new books on the history of Black politics, Whose Black Politics? Cases in Post Racial Leadership (Routledge) and Newark and the Class of Two Black Americas (working title, NYU Press).

In the interview, Gillespie described the younger generation of African-American politicians, which she calls the third wave of elected black leadership. She began to hone in on the differences between the old-style politics and the new while conducting research for her dissertation in Newark, New Jersey. While working on the election campaign of city councilman Cory Booker, Gillespie “witnessed this fight between young and old politicians,” she told the newspaper. The contest revolved around racial authenticity and who was the “blacker” candidate. To Gillespie, the revelation was far more interesting than the other aspect of her research about getting voters to the polls.

The second wave of black politicians was characterized largely by “deracialization,” which is what journalists often mean when they write “post-racial,” she said. It was a tactic first proposed in the 1970s in response to the Republican Party’s Southern strategy. “The argument was that the Republican Party had negatively tied race to the Democratic Party in a way that it was actually helping to defeat Democrats of all stripes,” she said. “Race needed to be separated from Democratic politics, and civil-rights issues needed to be recast not as racial justice issues but as issues that could benefit all people.” Barack Obama’s challenge to Bobby Rush for the U.S. House in 2000 is an example. Another example that’s closer to home is when Denise Majette challenged Cynthia McKinney for her seat in the U.S. House in 2002.

Atlanta’s new mayor, Kasim Reed, represents the third wave, though Gillespie pointed out that he differs from the mold in that he does not have an Ivy League education, which often characterizes politicians in the third wave. “One of the interesting things about Mayor Reed is that he may be the first example of somebody who wasn’t born into a political family who has strong connections to the black political establishment.”

To see the entire interview, visit http://www.ajc.com/news/atlanta/emory-professor-s-book-286870.html


Kevin Young Talks about Poetry
January 22, 2010

Emory Professor of English and poet Kevin Young was the subject of a recent interview in the South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Young was a headliner at last week’s Palm Beach Poetry Festival in Delray Beach.

The article describes Young as one of the leading younger poets in America, with eight collections of poems since his 1998 debut,  Most Way Home. He is a “a self-described heir to the ‘blues poetry’ tradition of Langston Hughes” and “writes poems widely praised for their musicality and storytelling.” He was a 2003 National Book Award finalist for Jelly Roll: A Blues, and he’s also earned a variety of other honors and prizes.

When asked about the popularity of poetry today and the possible influence of hip-hop on its resurgence, Young replied that “Hip-hop and spoken word are important, but I think reports of the death of poetry were always greatly exaggerated. It's always been diverse and varied, with lots of different forms of poetry being produced and read.”

He said also that “People turn to poetry in moments when they need it, and I think it's very much needed today. Especially after 9-11, people realized poetry is an essential part of our lives. But I also think poetry is intimate, it's you and the page, and that intimacy is sorely missed in some areas of contemporary life.”
           
To see the entire interview, visit:
http://www.sun-sentinel.com/features/fl-ppl-kevin-young-011910-20100118,0,574689.story


Emory's Growing Ranks of Public Scholars
January 15, 2010

A growing number of Emory faculty are stepping into the limelite as public scholars. Here are a few who were featured in various media over the holidays:

  • Professors of psychology Barbara Rothbaum and Drew Westen appeared on “This Emotional Life,” the three-part PBS special that explores improving our social relationships, learning to cope with depression and anxiety, and becoming more positive, resilient individuals.
  • Drew Westen also wrote an opinion piece for CNN on how the Obama administration has fumbled when attempting to communicate crucial information to the public.
  • Prairie voles are usually monogamous little critters. But Zoe Donaldson, a researcher at Yerkes National Primate Researcher Center and her colleagues found that genetic manipulation of the animals could result in more promiscuous offspring. Their findings shed a new light on bonding, trust, and decision making and humans. Their work was featured in Psychology Today and The Economist.
  • Gary Laderman, chair of the Department of Religion, was quoted in a Newsweek article about finding spirituality at home.

Film Studies Faculty Choose Best Films of the Last Decade
January 4, 2010

Choosing a top-ten list of anything is of course highly subjective, but picking one that includes the best films of the decade that just came to a close would seem to require a Herculean distillation. That being said, who better to ask than the people who study film for a living? When the Atlanta Journal Constitution asked faculty in Emory’s Department of Film Studies were asked for their picks, here’s what they came up with:

(Faculty raters include Matthew H. Bernstein, chair of film studies, along with lecturers William Brown and Eddy Von Mueller.)


AMOROS PERROS (2000) (William Brown)

CACHE (2005) (Matthew Bernstein)

CAPTURING THE FRIEDMANS (2003) (William Brown)

CITY OF GOD (2002) (William Brown)

DIVINGBELL AND THE BUTTERFLY (2007) (William Brown)

ETERNAL SUNSHINE OF THE SPOTLESS MIND (2004)(Matthew Bernstein)

IN THE MOOD FOR LOVE (2000) (Eddy Von Mueller)

LIVES OF OTHERS (2006) (William Brown)

THE LORD OF THE RINGS (2001 – 2003) (Eddy Von Mueller)

MEMENTO (2000) (Eddy Von Mueller)

SPIRITED AWAY (2001) (Eddy Von Mueller)

To view detailed descriptions of the films and why they were selected, visit http://blogs.ajc.com/arts-culture/2009/12/28/the-decades-top-10-movies-emory-film-faculty-picks-their-faves/


"Fly Me To The Moon": Emory Composer and Musician Heard in Outer Space
December 16, 2009

The most recent mission of the space shuttle Atlantis to the International Space Station carried a musical representative from Emory: The album Renaissance, a tribute to jazz pianist Oscar Peterson by Gary Motley, Emory’s director of jazz studies. Mission Specialist Bobby Satcher, an orthopedic surgeon who happens to be Motley's cousin, took the CD with him on his first trip into space.

“I was more focused on what my cousin was doing than on the CD going up,” said Motley.  “Here’s someone on a space mission that I’m actually related to, and oh yeah, he did take my music with him. That’s kind of cool too.”

Even better, Motley was invited to play at a reception for Satcher’s friends and family on the night before the launch, which he said was even more exciting than knowing his music was orbiting the earth. In the building that houses the last remaining 363-foot Saturn V moon rocket, which hangs from the ceiling, Motley played jazz on a solo grand piano to a gathering of about 300 people. Among his selections: “How High the Moon.” He watched the launch the following afternoon.

During the eleven-day mission, his cousin walked in space with colleague Randy Bresnick to install an experiment involving nanoparticles and to replace an oxygen tank. Motley plans to speak with Satcher soon and would like to know what the other crew members thought about his music. He added that he’s always been a big fan of science and even began his college career as an engineering major.


Collection of Faculty Development Podcasts Growing
December 3, 2009

The collection and scope of brief podcasts developed and produced by the Center for Faculty Development and Excellence (CFDE), is growing steadily, and all are easily accessible through iTunes U at Emory.

In a series of six podcasts, Emory faculty from various departments describe how they face the challenge of staying creative in their work, their own creative processes, and their generative highs and lows.

For example, Andra Gillespie, an assistant professor of political science, describes how her background as a political pollster and a fascination  with the mayoral race in Newark in 2002, which pitted two black democrats against each other, inspired her to take creative risks with her academic career. Greg Berns, Distinguished Chair of Neuroeconomics, recounts how rock and roll helped him clear a creative plateau after he wrote first book.

Other selections include abbreviated versions of lively CFDE panel discussions, whose topics have included civil discourse in the classroom, the pains and pleasures of Wikipedia, and strategies for working with English as a Second Language students.

Future CFDE podcasts will address how to instill professionalism in students as they embark on their careers and the many ways of using technology to communicate with students and augment and enliven class work.

To listen to any of the CFDE podcasts, click here.

To visit the CFDE website, go to cfde.emory.edu.


Steven K. Strange, 1950-2009
Francis Manley, 1931-2009

November 13, 2009

Emory recently lost two eminent figures. Steven K. Strange, associate professor of philosophy and a member of the Emory faculty since 1990, died on October 28.
           
Professor Emeritus Frank Manley died on November 11.
           
Strange specialized in the history of ancient philosophy, especially Platonism and the Hellenistic schools. He was best know for his work on Plotinus and Neo-Platonism.  He taught previously at Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, Princeton, and Harvard, and was one of the earliest graduates of the distinguished program in classical philosophy at the University of Texas at Austin.

A book of letters in tribute to Strange can be found at http://www2.gsu.edu/~phltso/steve-strange-memorial.html. Anyone wishing to add to the book can send a hardcopy letter by Friday, December 4 to Catherine Hall, c/o Emory’s philosophy department.
           
Manley, an award-winning poet, novelist, and playwright, was the Charles Howard Candler Professor of Renaissance Literature and the first director of Emory’s Creative Writing Program. He was married to his high school sweetheart, Carolyn Holliday Manley, for 57 years.
           
A funeral mass will be held on Saturday, November 14 at 11 o’clock at Sacred Heart Church in Atlanta.

To read an AE essay by Steve Strange on crises in scholarly publishing and library acquisitions, click here.


MilliPub Club Honors Influential Work
November 6, 2009

Emory faculty whose individual research papers have been cited at least a thousand times in academic literature are now being honored by the newly formed MilliPub Club.

According to Ray Dingledine, chair of the Department of Pharmacology, who came up with the idea and launched the group, papers that garner so much attention from peers reflect the highest in scholarly achievement and represent the equivalent of a pharmaceutical blockbuster.
           
“Creation of the MilliPub Club is one of several steps we’re taking to shift the way we view our path to success—away from an exclusive reliance on research dollars to incorporate more direct measures of research achievement,” says Dingledine. The Department of Medicine, as expected from its history and size, dominated the inaugural membership, with half of the twenty MilliPub investigators.

The club, whose membership recently increased by one, includes cardiology researcher and Woodruff Leadership Academy fellow Kathy Griendling, who has published four papers that qualify for MilliPub honors. The club is sponsored by the medical school, but membership is open to any qualifying Emory faculty member. A website featuring stories about the MilliPub Club members may be put up at some point.

MilliPub Club members and the number of papers with 1000+ citations:

Kathy Griendling  (4 papers) 
David Harrison   (3 papers)
Steve Warren   (2 papers) 
Wayne Alexander  (2 papers) 
Mike Frankel    (1 paper)
Haian Fu     (1 paper )
Dean Jones     (1 paper)
Ray Dingledine   (1 paper)
Steve Traynelis     (1 paper 
Larry Phillips    (1 paper)
Andrew Smith    (1 paper) 
Angel Leon      (1 paper)
Rafi Ahmed       (1 paper)
TJ Murphy     (1 paper) 
Paul Fernhoff      (1 paper)
John Altman    (1 paper)
Marla Luskin     (1 paper)
Darryl Neill         (1 paper)
David B DeLurgio    (1 paper)
Dan Sorescu    (1 paper) 


Digital Magazine About Religion Wins Ford Foundation Grant
November 2, 2009

Religion Dispatches, the online religion magazine based at Emory, has received a grant of $870,000 from the Ford Foundation to finance operations over the next three years.

The award is one of the largest single grants to the humanities in the history of Emory College, said Robert Paul, dean of Emory College of Arts and Sciences.
           
Officially launched in February 2008, Religion Dispatches already has passed the mark of two million page views and is on track to reach a million readers a year, said Emory’s Gary Laderman, who, along with Linell Cady of Arizona State University, is the publication’s co-executive editor. They attribute that success to growing demand for online analysis and commentary on religion and public life.
           
Religion Dispatches meets a critical need for progressive expertise, public scholarship and informed perspectives at the intersection of religion, social justice issues, and policy debates,”  said Cady. “It provides a platform for a variety of voices, from experts to journalists and activists, both secular and religious, to explore the religious dimensions of political and social issues.”
           
The publication is dedicated to the analysis and understanding of religious forces in the world through diverse and progressive voices and seeks to provoke a broad conversation about religion. It targets audiences both in and beyond academia. Religion Dispatches features a diverse group of writers in terms of race, ethnicity, sexuality, religious identity, and professional expertise  “who offer perspectives that have been marginalized in recent decades,” said Laderman, a professor of American religious history and culture.
           
In the cover story of the October/November issue of The Academic Exchange, Laderman spoke about the influence of online scholarship: 

Younger scholars are more actively seeking out different kinds of outlets for their knowledge, which is a direct result of the digital revolution. All of these things are merging and have an impact on what it means to be a scholar, what it means to be engaged in public scholarship, and what your responsibilities as a scholar are. It’s such a challenge for young scholars who are concerned about getting tenure. We want to make sure where they get published is going to count in some way.

In coming months, Religion Dispatches will roll out a new design and architecture with an eye toward expanding multimedia content. Plans also include marketing its content to religion scholars as a resource for classroom use, and continuing outreach to other web and social networking sites. Religion Dispatches stories already have appeared on sites such as the Huffington Post and The Washington Post’s  "On Faith" blog.


List of Visionaries Includes Emory Professor
October 22, 2009

The Utne Reader’s second annual list of fifty visionaries who are changing the world includes Emory Professor of Women’s Studies Rosemarie Garland-Thomson. The publication cited her most recent book, Staring: How We Look (Oxford UP 2009), about why disabled people attract stares and why that attention sometimes transforms a would-be stigma into empowerment.

“The visionaries we were drawn to made the cut not for being revolutionary inventors, innovative environmentalists, vociferous outcasts, or intrepid reformers—although you’ll find all of these enviable character types on the following pages—but for the unwavering, inexhaustible sense of purpose they bring to their work,” the editors explained.
           
Garland-Thomson finds herself among some august company. The Dalai Lama tops the diverse list, which also includes experimental poet Christian Bök, sports columnist Dave Zirin, American Indian education advocate Julie Cajune, prosthetics engineer Jonathon Kuniholm, and animal rights activist Tom Regan.
           
“Quiet resolve does not fill tents at the circus,” the editors continued. “Selflessness, “unless it is exhibited by heroes in the heat of a crisis, is often presented as weakness. Yet it is only the strongest among us who can stay true to a vision.”
           
In her own description of her book, Garland Thomson says that she draws on examples from art, media, fashion, history and memoir to explore the factors that motivate staring and considers the targets and the effects of the stare.

To see the complete Utne Reader list of visionaries, visit http://www.utne.com/Politics/50-Visionaries-Changing-Your-World-Hope-2009.aspx


MRIs and Mind Reading: Does Technology Threaten Our Last Private Space?
October 15, 2009

Our inner thoughts are ours and ours alone—an impenetrable refuge that no one else can breach. Do advances in brain imaging technology threaten that sanctum sanctorum? That’s what Paul Root Wolpe, Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Bioethics and the director of the Center for Ethics at Emory, pondered in a commentary on the Forbes magazine website.

“The inner dialogue, which exists wholly in our heads, is, in some sense, our single most private possession . . . at least until now,” Wolpe writes. “Neuroscience has, for the first time, demonstrated that there may be ways to directly access human thought—even, perhaps, without the thinker’s consent.” He adds that the research is still preliminary but advancing quickly, and its implications will be profound.

Wolpe refers to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which can monitor and brain activity while subjects perform various tasks. For example, in early research the scans were able to identify the orientation of stripes viewed by a subject and determine categories for the images a subject looked at. Later, scientists began to link personality traits with the brain activation patterns of fMRI.

More alarming is that “more recent studies seem to have taken significant steps toward what most would consider mind-reading,” Wolpe writes. While the technology cannot yet be used for practical applications, such as lie detection or extracting useful information—from anyone, Wolpe says that’s only a matter of time. “The time to think about the implications of this endeavor is now, before the technology is upon us. . . . What are the limits of the use of this technology? Should we ever allow the courts, or the state, to demand access to the recesses of our minds?”

No, Wolpe answers: “The skull should be designated as a domain of absolute privacy. No one should be able to probe an individual’s mind against their will. . . . We should forgo the use of the technology under coercive circumstances even though using it may serve the public good.”

To see the entire article, visi: http://www.forbes.com/2009/10/09/neuroimaging-neuroscience-mind-reading-opinions-contributors-paul-root-wolpe.html

To read the AE interview with Paul Wolpe from the December 08/January 09 issue, visit http://www.emory.edu/ACAD_EXCHANGE/2009/decjan/wolpeqa.html


On Becoming a Public Scholar
October 5, 2009

Mark Bauerlein is a professor of English at Emory. After the 2008 publication of his most recent book, “The Dumbest Generation: How Stupefies Young Americans and Jeopardizes Our Future,” Bauerlein has been interviewed by dozens of media outlets in and beyond the U.S. He writes regularly about the influence of technology on the social and educational development of young people in The Chronicle of Higher Education, and his work has appeared in The Weekly Standard, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and The New York Times. We asked him about his role as a public scholar.

Academic Exchange: How have you dealt with the repetition of so many interviews?

Mark Bauerlein: I’ve done about 160 interviews in the last 15 months. One of the things I learned working in the  federal government when we had to do interviews about our programs at NEA is that you polish a message. You polish it and polish it and when you’re there you repeat it. So I repeat a lot of the same things. If it sells books that’s always a good thing, but if you feel you’re engaged in a battleground you’ve got to fight the war.

AE: Why did you decided to direct your work to a public audience rather than an academic one?

MB: The humanities in many fields, the biggest one being literary studies and cultural studies, have published themselves into insignificance. Who cares about the next book on Herman Melville? Who cares about the next book on William Blake? None of these things matter. Nobody reads them. The unit sales for books on literary studies from Harvard press are 300-350 copies, and 250 of those or a little more are standing library orders. If you look at the number of motivated buyers every year, and that includes other scholars, you’re down in the mid-two figures.

Humanities publishing, humanities research, in many areas, though not all of them – film is still lively, religion is still lively—you get ho hum. And you’ve still got an army of people out there who keep publishing. Why? Because the incentives are there. It doesn’t matter that you wrote a book that nobody read. What matters is that it’s down on your annual report, it shows you’re still being productive, active, so you get an extra one percentage on your salary because you published a book. Nobody is paying attention.

If you believe that what you’re saying is important, has some meaningfulness to the larger culture, and if you want your beliefs and values to have an impact, you have to go the public route.

AE: How has your own way of thinking changed about technology and its influence on young people as you’ve continued to discuss the topic in the public arena?

MB: What happened for me over the course of first bringing out the book and all the interviews and debates is I started thinking more about how the digital age affects the social lives of teenagers, and that this has an impact on their intellectual growth. I didn’t think as strongly about the social impact as the intervening step, I was thinking firmly about how the internet is a stupid thing for them to do by and large as a substitute for reading books, newspapers and good magazines. I didn’t realize the social factor of the internet as strongly at the time. Now I’m talking a lot about that and laying out in speeches some set pieces how social life has changed with the advent of the digital age.


Emory Chemist Earns Herty Medal for Green Energy Work
September 24, 2009

Craig Hill, Goodrich C. White Professor of Chemistry, has been awarded the 2009 Herty Medal for his work on green energy. The medal is handed out each year to an outstanding chemist from eleven southeastern states.

Hill will accept the award during an Atlanta award celebration September 17-18, where he will be the featured speaker.
           
“This is a chance to talk to a lot of young scientists—both undergraduate researchers and high school students—about how exciting science is right now,” Hill says. “I derive great joy from teaching young scholars how to tickle out Mother Nature’s secrets and how to invent.”
           
Hill’s talk will center on green energy and include a description of his recent work on developing the first prototypes of stable, molecular water oxidation catalysts—a critical component in making solar energy cheap and efficient enough to go mainstream.
           
“People love the idea of doing chemistry with the sun to create a source of energy that is sustainable and not damaging to the planet,” Hill says. “It’s an idea at the nexus of need, scientific invention and creativity.” He added that solving the challenges of green energy will require the collaboration of scientists from many disciplines and perspectives.
           
Since joining Emory in 1983, Hill has mentored 100 graduate students and post-doctoral associates. He has also collaborated with top scientists from Emory and throughout the world on his innovative green chemistry solutions. His seminal work on processes needed to convert solar energy into hydrogen laid the groundwork for Emory’s Renewable Energy Center, established this fall.

Other honors bestowed on Hill include being elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; a Distinguished Fellow of the Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences; and Chair of the National Science Foundation Workshop in Inorganic Chemistry for 2007-2009. He also served as a Nobel Prize in Chemistry nominator for sixteen years and as the editor of the New Journal of Chemistry and other journals.


Emory Faculty At Vanguard of H1N1 Preparations and Response
September 17, 2009

To prevent emergency rooms from being overwhelmed by patients who have the H1N1 flu, or who just think they do, Emory faculty are developing an algorithm to help clinicians and patients determine who really needs to go to the hospital and who should simply stay home and rest.

The algorithm, which consists of a series of questions for patients and recommendations based on their answers, was conceived by Arthur Kellerman, a professor of emergency medicine and associate dean of public policy, and Alexander Isakov, an associate professor of medicine and executive director of Emory's Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response.            

Kellerman described the algorithm at an Institute of Medicine workshop in Washington, D.C., in early September. It begins with questions that people can answer about their health via the Web or telephone. Depending on the answers, respondents are directed to either go to the an emergency room, call their doctor, or stay home and take care of themselves.

As the spread of H1N1 influenza accelerates, emergency rooms may find themselves overwhelmed by patients seeking treatment, as happened in several areas of the country last spring. Many of those patients did not need emergency care because they either had mild symptoms, were in groups at low risk for H1N1-related complications, or didn’t even have the H1N1 virus.

In fact, people who unnecessarily make the trip to the ER strain resources that could be used for very ill patients. They also increase risk of getting sicker or further spreading the disease. And people who don’t actually have the virus risk contracting it amid the confined space of a hospital waiting room.

Ideally, the new tool, if adopted and widely deployed, could reduce health system surge, relieve emergency department overcrowding, save time, prevent risk for symptomatic individuals, and free healthcare workers to focus on the most severely ill. Kellerman and Isakov believe the algorithm could be used in a variety of settings by individuals as well as by healthcare workers.

Kellerman discussed the need to keep flu-related ER traffic to a minimum in a September 11 National Public Radio report. Overflowing emergency rooms, he said, can be dangerous places: “It’s bad if you’ve got three hundred people at the triage desk, and the 301st person is severely ill,” because that 301st person may have trouble getting seen, he told NPR. He cautioned also that “if you didn’t have H1N1 when you got to the ER, you’ll probably have it when you go home.”

Ruth Parker, a professor of medicine at Emory and a health literacy expert, who also spoke at the Institute of Medicine meeting, told NPR that she tested the algorithm questions on her three children when she dropped them off at three colleges last month. She reached a conclusion: Don’t ask college kids if they have a fever of over 100.4 degrees, because they’ve thrown out the thermometers their parents so carefully packed.

Parker said she realized also that many people don’t know that the H1N1 flu and swine flu are one in the same. If she didn’t call it swine flu, a lot of people didn’t know what she was talking about. “Right now what we have is a lot of confusion mixed in with fear,” Parker said. “We’re always more scared of the unknown.”

To see or listen to the complete NPR story, visit
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=112758065


Chimps yawn in empathy with animated image
September 10, 2009

The British Royal Society journal, Proceedings B, contained an article by Emory scientists on their discovery that live chimps will imitate an animated image of a chimp yawning.

According to Matthew Campbell, a psychobiologist at Yerkes and lead author on the study, the findings could assist in the future study of empathy and how children might imitate what they see onscreen in computer games.

The researchers used animation, Campbell says, “because we can control all the features of what we show [the chimps].” Their evidence showed that chimpanzees “process animated faces the same way they process photographs of faces.”

The scientists also wanted to demonstrate the use of animations in behavioral experiments.

The Proceedings B article was reported on the BBC News website. To read the report, visit http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8244963.stm


Conservatives Aim at Wrong Healthcare Targets, Says Health Policy and Management Professor
September 4, 2009

Conservatives who are attacking health care reform because they say it will lead to rationing or end-of-life counseling, or waiting lists are taking aim at the wrong targets, according to David Howard, an associate professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Emory University.

In an August 31 opinion piece in the Atlanta Journal Constitution, Howard writes, “Just as concerns about the end-of-life care provisions are overblown, the health reform bills will not lead to rationing in other settings. The bills stipulate a fairly generous, some might say overly generous, benefit package, and do not give added authority to Medicare or other government programs to deny care. . . . In focusing so much on rationing, critics are deflecting attention from the real danger lurking in health reform, which is out-of-control spending and budget deficits.”

And it’s that spending they should direct their criticism, Howard goes on to say:

“In focusing so much attention on rationing, conservatives are gaining traction with the public. But they are selling future taxpayers short in the process. Whether reform passes or fails, the costs of the Medicare program will continue to grow on an unsustainable path.”

By taking sensible reforms off the table, conservatives are now in the position of advocating for higher government spending today and, implicitly, higher taxes down the road.”

To see the entire article, visit http://www.ajc.com/opinion/conservatives-hit-the-wrong-128162.html


CEPAR Issues Flu Update
August 27, 2009

Emory’s Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response (CEPAR) has issued an update about the H1N1 flu virus (formerly known as swine flu). Here are some key points:

  • The H1N1 virus differs from the typical seasonal flu because it causes more illness in people age 5-24 than in older age groups, and because a vaccine for the new virus is not yet available (though one is expected this fall).
  • Most cases of H1N1 flu have been mild, but there have been hospitalizations and deaths,  just as there is every year with seasonal flu.
  • The H1N1 virus has demonstrated an ability to cause serious illness not only among individuals with underlying medical conditions but also among young, previously healthy individuals.
  • The symptoms of H1N1 flu are similar to seasonal influenza and include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. Some people have also reported diarrhea and vomiting. Like seasonal flu, anyone with underlying chronic medical conditions may be more seriously impacted by H1N1 flu.
  • Most people who get H1N1 flu will recover without the need for medical care, but those who do develop signs and symptoms of the flu may be ill for a week or longer.
  • According to CEPAR, when the H1N1 vaccine becomes available, Emory will work with State and local public health agencies to provide more information about obtaining this very important vaccine.
  • For people who develop signs and symptoms of flu, the CDC recommends that individuals stay home and avoid contact with others as much as possible; avoid going to school or work until twenty-four hours after your fever is down without use of medications (there are different guidelines for the healthcare setting); if you need to go out to seek medical care, cover your face with a facemask and cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue.

An August 20 article about the new virus in the Chronicle of Higher Education noted that  more than fifty students each at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa and Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge have reported flu-like symptoms to the universities’ student-health centers. Flu outbreaks were also reported at several colleges’ summer programs.

“College-aged students are particularly vulnerable to this virus, and they are not necessarily seeing a doctor on a regular basis,” Kathleen Sebelius, U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services, said in a conference call with reporters Thursday. “A lot of them have not had regular vaccination updates. They need to be encouraged to not only take care of themselves, isolating themselves when they are sick, but also to take advantage of the vaccine when it becomes available.”

The article went on to say that guidelines from the CDC urge colleges to make it easy for students, faculty, and staff members with flu symptoms to miss class or work. They also ask colleges to consider offering alternative housing for sick students who live with roommates and to consider telling students who have medical complications putting them at high risk for severe cases of the flu to stay home or in their rooms during outbreaks.

To read the complete CEPAR advisory, visit http://www.emory.edu/home/H1N1-flu/advisories/cepar-august26.html

For information about H1N1 from the CDC, (including interim guidelines for institutions of higher education), visit http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/

For the complete Chronicle of Higher Education article, visit http://chronicle.com.proxy.library.emory.edu/article/Colleges-Get-Ready-for-Swin/48144/