HUMAN ANATOMY
COURSE OBJECTIVES
 

Dissection 1: The Vertebral Column & Spinal Cord Dissection Team A
Dissector pp. 115-123

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the components of a typical vertebra and a typical intervertebral articulation and specific differences in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions.
  2. Identify the course and location of the major ligaments connecting the vertebrae.
  3. Identify the anatomical components of dorsal (spinal) musculature and indicate the segmental extent, the innervation and the mechanical effect of each..
  4. Identify the components of a typical spinal nerve.
  5. Identify the major coverings (meninges) of the spinal cord and indicate the relationship of each to the vertebral canal, nerve roots and spinal cord.
  6. Identify the spinal cord (note the differences in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral areas), dorsal and ventral rootlets, dorsal root ganglion, the cauda equina and the filum terminale.
Dissection 2:  Shoulder Region and Axilla - Dissection Team B
Dissector:  pp. 159/168

Objectives:  At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.

  1. Identify the major processes on the scapula, clavicle and the proximal part of the humerus.  Identify the joints and ligaments formed between the scapula, clavicle and humerus and the contribution of each joint to the movements of the shoulder and the surface projections of the skeletal elements.
  2. Identify the muscles of the shoulder, axilla and arm, indicate their primary actions and their innervation.  Predict the functional consequences of weakness or loss of function of each muscle.
  3. Follow the course of cutaneous and muscular innervation in the shoulder, axilla and arm.  Identify the component parts of the brachial plexus, the segmental source of origin, and the termination of each.  Given a lesion to any part of the brachial plexus, predict the sensory and motor deficits which would be expected.
  4. Trace the flow of blood from the aorta to the dorsal surface of the scapula and shoulder joint.  Identify the different vessels contributing to this vascular network and list all known collateral connections.
  5. Trace the flow of blood from the aorta into and out of the arm (back to the subclavian vein).  Indicate the major sources of arterial and venous flow and known collateral pathways.  Include superficial and deep venous vessels.
  6. Trace the flow of lymph into and out of the axillary lymph nodes. Identify afferent sources and efferent targets of each group of axillary nodes. follow the course of lymphatic drainage of the breast.
Dissection 3:  Gluteal Region, Thigh, and Knee - Dissection Team C
Dissector pp. 127/139

Objectives:  At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.

  1. Identify the components of the pelvic bones and proximal femur with the associated ligaments and joint capsule and the contribution that each makes to the hip joint.  Show the surface projections of these skeletal elements.
  2. Identify the osseous components of the distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and the contribution that each makes to the knee joint.  Indicate the functional role for each of the ligaments and tendons and intra-articular structures.  Identify the functional consequences of damage or destruction to the ligaments or intra-articular structures of the knee joint.
  3. Identify the muscles of the gluteal region and thigh and their innervation.  Be able to describe the disposition of these muscles around the hip and knee joint and to predict the functional consequences of weakness or loss of function of each muscle.
  4. Trace the flow of blood from the common iliac artery to the gluteal region and hip joint indicating the different sources of this vascular network and known collateral connections.  Trace the venous return from these areas to the inferior vena cava.
  5. Trace the flow of blood from the common iliac artery into and out of the thigh.  Note particularly, the different sources of supply and drainage to this vascular bed and collateral circulation within the network.  Trace the venous return from the thigh to the inferior vena cava, include superficial and deep vessels.
  6. Identify the femoral sheath, its fascial origins, and its contents, including lymph drainage.  Indicate the relationship of the sheath and femoral hernias.
Dissection 4: Forearm & Hand - Dissection Teams A
Dissector pp. 170/180

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the major processes of the distal humerus, the ulna, the radius and the joints formed by each. Identify the ligaments, joint capsule, the tendons and muscles associated with movement of the elbow joint.
  2. Identify the individual carpal bones on an articulated skeleton or x-ray and indicate the movements possible at the proximal and mid-carpal articular levels and the carpometacarpal joints, the ligaments, joint capsule and joint types illustrated by the articulations.
  3. Identify the metacarpal and phalangeal bones, the type of joints formed between them and the ligaments and joint capsule associated with each.
  4. Identify the individual muscles of the flexor region of the forearm, their actions, innervations and relationships to different fascial layers.
  5. Identify the superficial and deep muscles of the extensor region of the forearm. Indicate the innervation and major action of each, the relationship between the extensors of the digits and the lumbrical and interosseous muscles in action.
  6. Identify the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles on the palmer surface of the hand. Indicate the primary action of each and the interaction of extrinsic and intrinsic muscles in producing hand movements.
  7. Trace the course of sensory and motor innervation to the forearm and the hand and predict the functional deficit (motor and sensory) expected following destruction or injury to one of the major nerve trunks.
  8. Trace the flow of blood (arterial and venous [superficial and deep]) through the anterior forearm and hand, indicating the different sources of this vascular network and known collateral connections.
  9. Trace the flow of arterial blood to and the drainage of venous return from the hand, noting the primary vessels supplying this network and indicating known vascular connections.
  10. Follow the course of lymph vessels and note the location of lymph nodes from the hand and forearm to the elbow.
Dissection 5: Leg & Foot - Dissection Team B
Dissector pp. 141-151

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the osseous components of the distal tibia and fibula, the tarsal, metatarsal and phalangeal bones of the lower extremity along with the ligaments and joint capsules. Be able to demonstrate the major joints involved in dorsiflexion and planter flexion of the foot at the ankle, and inversion and eversion of the foot. Identify the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot, and their major sources of support (bony, ligamentous and tendon [muscle]).
  2. Define the anatomical basis for subdividing the leg into three fascial compartments, and the logical extension of these compartments into the foot region.
  3. Identify the muscles, nerves and blood supply of each of the fascial compartments of the leg and their extensions into the foot.
  4. Predict the motor and sensory deficits which would result from damage to the sciatic nerve or any of its branches. Predict the sensory deficits in the leg and foot which could result from damage to the femoral nerve.
  5. Follow the course of the vascular supply of the leg and foot and its known vascular connections. Indicate possible alternate pathways for arterial blood supply to the leg and foot, if a major vessel is blocked.
  6. Identify the major deep and superficial veins draining the lower extremity and the connections between the two. Indicate the primary mechanisms responsible for moving venous blood from the lower limb toward the heart.
  7. Trace the course of lymphatic drainage of the lower limb, indicating the locations of major aggregations of lymph nodes and interconnections between nodes.
Dissection 6 The Face and Cranial Contents - Dissection Team C
Dissector pp. 185-200

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the bones of the cranium and face. Indicate the foramina in each bone.
  2. Identify the facial muscles surrounding the eyes and mouth, and the muscles contributing to the scalp.
  3. Follow the course of the major sensory and motor nerves and their branches to the face and scalp. Indicate the source (cranial) of each and predict the deficit which would to be expected to follow injury to each.
  4. Trace the flow of blood, arterial and venous, of the face and scalp. Indicate the major supply and drainage of this vascular network and identify known vascular interconnections.
  5. Trace the flow of blood into and out of the cranial cavity. Indicate known vascular interconnections. Follow the flow of blood through the cerebral arterial circle indicating the region of brain supplied by each major branch and known vascular interconnections.
  6. Identify the three layers of meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord and the folds of aura mater which subdivide the cranium.
  7. Identify the cranial nerves that pass through the cavernous sinus and indicate their relationship within the sinus.
Dissection 7 The Eye and Orbit - Dissection Team A
Dissector pp. 201-206

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the elements of the bony orbit on a skull or x-ray.
  2. Indicate the structures lying superior, inferior, medial and lateral to the eyeball and the position of the eyeball relative to the bony orbit.
  3. Identify the extra-ocular muscles, indicate the nerve supply to each. Contrast the common clinical test for extra-ocular muscle function with the action of the individual muscles. Predict the functional deficit resulting from damage to each nerve.
  4. Follow the course of autonomic nervous supply to the orbital structures, indicating the pre- and post-ganglionic sources of innervation.
  5. Trace the flow of blood into and out of the orbit and orbital structures.
Dissection 8: The Neck - Dissection Team B
Dissector pp. 206-214

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the cervical vertebrae, their articulations with one another, the ligaments connecting each, and the types of movements possible between different cervical vertebrae.
  2. Identify the muscles of the neck and indicate their major actions and sources of innervation. Indicate the relationship of each of the muscle groups to the layers of deep fascia in the neck.
  3. Trace the course of nerves through the neck noting especially:
    1. the portions of the brachial plexus which are present in the neck region.
    2. the sensory and motor branches of the cervical plexus, their course and distribution in the neck and their relationship to major bony, muscular, or vascular landmarks in the region. Predict the functional deficits which would result from damage to any of the cervical components of the brachial plexus.
    3. the branches of the cranial nerves IX-XII seen in the neck and their relationship to major bony, muscular and vascular landmarks in the region. Predict the functional deficits which would result from damage to any of these nerves or their branches in the neck region.
    4. the extension of the upper part of the sympathetic trunk into the neck region.
  4. Trace the flow of arterial blood from the aorta through the neck including vessels that pass through the neck without branching and those that send branches to viscera and muscles of the neck.
  5. Trace the pathways for venous drainage from the neck into the brachial veins. Note the regions drained by tributaries of the internal and external jugular veins and subclavian veins. Note the differences between the patterns of arterial blood supply of the neck and venous drainage of the neck.
  6. Trace the lymphatic drainage of the neck to the deep cervical lymph nodes and indicate the drainage of these nodes to major lymph trunks or vasculature of the neck.
Dissection 9: Pharynx & Larynx, Ear - Dissection Team C
Dissector pp. 224-226, 235-239 plus syllabus instructions

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the major cartilages of the larynx and the muscles which bring about their movement. Identify the role played by each of these muscles in the control of vocal pitch and/or the control of the size of the rime glottidis.
  2. Identify the three pharyngeal constrictor muscles and their anterior attachments to bony/cartilaginous structures. Identify the three small longitudinal muscles of the pharynx.
  3. Follow the course of sensory and motor innervation of the larynx. Predict the functional consequences of damage to these nerves.
  4. Identify the components of the external, middle and inner ear and indicate the relationship of each to the internal carotid artery, internal jugular vein, the facial nerve and chorda tympani.
Dissection 10: Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine Fossse, Nose and Mouth - Dissection Team A
Dissection instructions in Syllabus and Dissector pp. 216-220, 227-237

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the boundaries of the infratemporal fossa.
  2. Identify the muscles of mastication, their sources of innervation and their major actions in chewing. Identify the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, give their innervation and actions. Identify the muscles of the soft palate, their innervation and major actions.
  3. Trace the flow of air into each of the paranasal sinuses, note the communication with the nasal cavity the relationships of each sinus to the oral, orbital and cranial cavities.
  4. Follow the course of the major nerves supplying structures and passing through the infratemporal fossa, the nasal and oral cavities. Indicate the source of and region supplied by and the functional components carried by each nerve. Identify the sensory and motor nerve supply to the tongue.
  5. Trace the flow of blood through the maxillary artery and its major branches. Note the regions supplied and the interconnections between branches. Trace the flow of blood into the nasal and oral cavities. Indicate the major sources of blood supply to these regions and any known vascular interconnections.
  6. Identify the parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Trace the course of their innervation and follow the flow of saliva from each gland to the mouth.
Dissection 11: Thoracic Wall, Pleura, Lungs - Dissection Team B
Dissector pp. 7-23

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify and compare typical and atypical ribs.
  2. Identify osseous portions of the sternum. Describe joints, ligaments and movements associated with respiration.
  3. Identify, give function and innervation of intercostal muscles and the diaphragm. Identify the muscles that are considered to be accessory muscles of respiration.
  4. Follow the course of a nervous impulse from a given spot on the surface of the thorax to the spinal cord. Describe the course of a typical somatic nerve in the thorax.
  5. Trace the course of typical autonomic neurons in the thorax. Indicate the origin, location and termination of the pre- and postganglionic elements.
  6. Trace the flow of blood into and out of a typical intercostal space. Indicate the organization of the arterial and venous elements, possible collateral vascular pathways and their relationships to the different muscles of the thoracic wall.
  7. Identify the parietal and visceral pleura, their different components, the pleural recesses. Indicate the surface projection of the parietal and visceral pleura.
  8. Identify branches of the pulmonary arteries and the tributaries of pulmonary veins on the hilar surface of each lung. Describe the flow of lymph from each lung and the location of lymph nodes associated with the lung.
  9. Identify the lobes of the right and left lungs. Identify impressions made on the surfaces of each lung by surrounding structures.
  10. Identify the surface projections of the bony landmarks of the thoracic wall and the major thoracic viscera (lung [and the fissures], the visceral and parietal pleura, heart, pericardium and the great vessels).
  11. Trace the lymphatic drainage of the thoracic walls, pleura, and lungs.
Dissection 12: The Heart and Mediastinum - Dissection Team C
Dissector pp. 23-37

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the boundaries and subdivisions of the mediastinum.
  2. Trace the course of the vagus nerve through the mediastinum. Identify its major branches and target organs. Identify the sympathetic trunk, the greater, lesser and least splanchnic nerves.
  3. Identify projections of the diaphragm onto the body surface. Identify its innervation and indicate its segmental source and the pathways taken by these nerves to reach their destination.
  4. Identify the parietal, visceral and fibrous pericardia and their relationship to the parietal pleura and the surface projections of the pericardia.
  5. Trace the course of blood through the right and left sides of the heart, indicating the internal structures of each chamber and the anatomical disposition of each of the valves. Indicate the surface projection of each valve.
  6. Follow the course of blood through each of the major coronary vessels. Indicate which vessels that supply the muscular wall of each chamber and the interventricular septum. Identify all possible collateral vessels.
  7. Describe the venous return from heart musculature and the location of these veins and relationship with the coronary arteries as they drain into the coronary sinus.
  8. Trace the presumed path of an impulse through the conduction system of the heart, begin at the SA node. Give the relationship of impulse system as it passes throughout the musculature.
  9. Follow the course of blood through the heart and great vessels in fetal life. Trace the flow of blood through the great vessels in adults. Indicate the similarities and differences.
  10. Trace the drainage of blood into the azygos system of veins and indicate any collateral connections to other parts of the systemic venous system.
  11. Trace the flow of lymph through the thoracic duct. Indicate the source of afferent lymphatics to the duct and its termination. Follow the course of other lymphatic drainage of the of the thorax.
Dissection 13: Abdominal Wall, Inguinal Region & Peritoneum - Dissection Team A
Dissector pp. 43-62

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the osseous landmarks and ligaments associated with the abdomen.
  2. Identify the fascial and muscular layers of the abdomen, emphasizing those passed through as a result of a surgical incision through the rectus sheath and rectus abdominis muscle above the umbilicus and/or just above the pubic symphysis.
  3. Identify the dermatome segments of the anterior abdominal wall. Contrast the anatomical organization of the cutaneous innervation and vascular supply of the abdominal and thoracic walls in terms of: their segmental organizations and the relationship of nerves to muscle layers.
  4. Identify the muscular and ligamentous components of the inguinal canal in both males and females. Be able to demonstrate the surface projections of the abdominal muscles, inguinal rings, inguinal canal, and bony pelvis.
  5. Follow the course of the testes as they descend from the posterior abdomen into the scrotum. Indicate the structures passed through and identify the homologies between scrotal and abdominal structures. Perform a similar analysis of the descent of the ovaries into the pelvis in females.
  6. Identify parietal and visceral peritoneum, their major reflections and the boundaries of their surface projections.
  7. Identify the boundaries of the omental bursa, its communication with the abdominal cavity and organs in anterior, posterior, superior and inferior relation to it.
  8. Indicate which of the abdominal organs are interperitoneal or retroperitoneal. Identify the surface projections of each of the organs.
  9. Identify the parts and peritoneal coverings of the liver.
Dissection 14: Abdominopelvic Cavity - Dissection Team B
Dissector pp. 62-78

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Follow the course of bile from the liver into and out of the gall bladder and into the duodenum.
  2. Follow the course of exocrine pancreatic secretions from their source to the duodenum. Identify the parts of the pancreas and its relationship to other abdominal organs.
  3. Trace the flow of blood (arterial & venous) for each of the major abdominal organs and indicate possible collateral vascular pathways.
  4. Contrast the caval, portal and vertebral venous pathways draining the abdomen and indicate sources of communication between them.
  5. Trace the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder, indicating the relationship of the left and right ureters to the peritoneum, posterior abdominal vasculature and musculature. Identify the surface projections of the kidneys and ureters.
  6. Identify the components of the lumbosacral nerve plexus and indicate the segmental source of origin and the peripheral distribution of each.
  7. Follow all of the possible courses of autonomic nervous impulses to the abdominal and pelvic organs. Indicate the source of both pre- and postganglionic elements.
  8. Identify the diaphragm, note the different portions, hiatuses, ligaments, crura and structures passing through, and the other muscles comprising the posterior abdominal wall and indicate their surface projections.
  9. Follow the course of lymphatic drainage in the abdomen and identify the major sites of lymph node aggregations.
Dissection 15: The Pelvis & Perineum - Dissection Team C
Dissector use syllabus

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.
 

  1. Identify the bony walls and ligamentous landmarks of the pelvis. For the female, indicate the importance of bony landmarks in relation to the major events of pregnancy and childbirth.
  2. Identify the normal position and anatomical relationships of the pelvic viscera. Describe the changes in these relationships that take place during filling and emptying of the bladder and with the enlargement of the uterus during pregnancy.
  3. Identify the extent of the peritoneal cavity and its folds and reflections in the male and female pelvis and their relationship to the pelvic contents. Distinguish between the ligaments which are formed by folds of peritoneum and ligaments which are formed by condensations of visceral pelvic fascia m terms of their function and relative position in the pelvic cavity.
  4. Identify the pelvic diaphragm and its components. Identify the urogenital diaphragm and its components. Indicate the relationship of the pelvic diaphragm and the urogenital diaphragm to the genitourinary tracts in the male and female. Describe the anatomical relationships between the peritoneal cavity, the visceral pelvic fascia, the pelvic diaphragm, the structures of the perineum and the urogenital diaphragm.
  5. Follow the flow of blood into and out of the structures of the pelvis and perineum and important areas of collateral circulation. Identify areas containing potentially important portal-caval anastomoses.
  6. Identify the lymphatic drainage of structures in the pelvis and perineum. Identify the sites of aggregations of lymph nodes receiving lymphatic drainage from various areas of the pelvis and perineum.
  7. Follow the course taken by an ovum through the female reproductive tract and the pathway taken by a spermatozoon through the male reproductive tract. Identify the location, anatomical relations and function of accessory glands in the male and female reproductive tracts. Identify the role of vasculature, nerves and muscles in normal male and female sexual function.
  8. Identify the innervation of the bladder and its sphincters. Identify the openings of the ureters and urethra in the bladder wall. Describe the location and anatomical relations of the internal and external urethral sphincters. Describe the anatomical basis for control of micturition.
  9. Identify the rectum and anus and the anal sphincters and their innervation. Describe the anatomical basis for control of defecation.