HUMAN ANATOMY, 1995

COURSE OBJECTIVES

Dissection 1: The Vertebral Column & Spinal Cord Dissection Team A

Dissector pp. 115-123 Dates: 8/17, 8/22 Presentations: 8/24

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the components of a typical vertebra and a typical intervertebral articulation and specific differences in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions.

2. Identify the anatomical components of the dorsal or spinal musculature and indicate the segmental extent of the mechanical effect of each.

3. Identify the course and location of the major ligaments connecting different vetebrae.

4. Identify the components of a typical spinal nerve and the relationship of each component to the elements of a typical intervertebral articulation.

5. Identify the major coverings (meninges) of the spinal cord and indicate the relationship of each to the vertebral canal, nerve roots and spinal cord.

Dissection 2: Shoulder Region and Axilla - Dissection Team B

Dissector: pp. 159-168 Dates: 8/24,8/29 Presentations: 8/31

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the major processes on the scapula, clavicle and the proximal part of the humerus, the contribution of each of the joints to the movements of the shoulder region, the disposition of muscles about these joints, and surface projections of these skeletomuscular elements.

2. Trace the flow of blood from the aorta to the dorsal surface of the scapula and shoulder joint indicating the different sources of this vascular network and known collateral connections.

3. Follow the course of cutaneous and muscular innervation in the shoulder and gluteal regions. Predict the functional consequences of loss or damage to specific nerves or nerve trunks.

4. Identify the component parts of the brachial plexus, the segmental source of origin, and the termination of each. Given a particular lesion to one of these parts, be able to predict the sensory and motor deficits which would be expected.

5. Follow the course of lymphatic drainage of the breast and/or upper limb into the axilla, noting the course of lymphatic vessels and the location of major lymph node aggregations.

6. Identify the muscles of the axilla and arm, their primary actions and the sources of their innervation. Predict the functional consequences of weakness or loss of function of each muscle.

7. Trace the flow of blood into and out of the arm. Indicate the major sources of arterial and venous flow and known collateral pathways.

Dissection 3: Gluteal Region, Thigh, and Knee - Dissection Team C

Dissector pp. 127-139, Dates: 8/29, 8/31 Presentations: 9/7

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the components of the pelvic bones and proximal femur, and, the contribution of each to the hip joint. Identify the disposition of muscles about this joint, and surface projections of these skeletomuscular elements.

2. Trace the flow of blood from the common iliac artery to the gluteal region and hip joint indicating the different sources of this vascular network and known collateral connections.

3. Identify the muscles of the thigh, their primary actions and the sources of their innervation. Predict the functional consequences of weakness or loss of function of each muscle.

4. Identify the femoral sheath, its fascial origins, and its contents. Indicate the relationship of the sheath of femoral hernias.

5. Trace the flow of blood from the common iliac artery into and out of the thigh. Note particularly the different sources of supply and drainage to this vascular bed and collateral circulation within the network.

6. Identify the major structural components of the knee joint. Indicate the functional role proposed for each of the ligaments and intra-articular structures. Identify the functional consequences of damage or destruction to ligaments or intra- articular structures of the knee joint.

Dissection 4: Forearm & Hand - Dissection Teams A

Dissector pp. 170-180 Dates: 8/31, 9/5, 9/7 Presentations: 9/12

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Trace the flow of blood through the anterior forearm, indicating the different sources of this vascular network and known collateral connections.

2. Identify the individual muscles of the flexor region of the forearm, their actions and their relationships to different fascial layers.

3. Identify the individual carpal bones on an articulated skeleton and indicate the movements possible at the proximal and mid-carpal articular levels and the carpometacarpal joints.

4. Identify the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles on the palmar surface of the hand. Indicate the primary action of each and the interaction of extrinsic and intrinsic muscles in producing precision hand movement.

5. Trace the course of sensory and motor innervation to the forearm and the hand and predict the functional deficit expected following destruction or injury to one of the major nerve trunks.

6. Trace the flow of blood through the hand, noting the primary vessels supplying this network and indicating known vascular connections.

7. Identify the superficial and deep muscles of the extensor region of the forearm. Indicate the major action of each, and especially, the relationship between the extensors of the digits and the lumbrical and interosseous muscles in precision movements.

Dissection 5: Leg & Foot - Dissection Team B

Dissector pp. 141-151 Dates: 9/7, 9/12 Presentations: 9/13

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Define the anatomical basis for subdividing the leg into three fascial compartments, and the logical extension of the these compartments into the foot region.

2. Identify the muscles, nerves, and blood supply of each of the fascial compartments of the leg and their extensions into the foot.

3. Describe the action of the muscles of each compartment and be able to predict the deficit which would result from impairment of function in any of these muscles.

4. Predict the motor and sensory deficits which would result from damage to the sciatic nerve or any of its branches. Predict the sensory deficits in the leg and foot which could result from damage to the femoral nerve.

5. Follow the course of the vascular supply of the leg and foot and its known vascular connections. Indicate possible alternate pathways for arterial blood supply to the leg and foot, if a major vessel is blocked.

6. Identify the bones of the foot on an articulated skeleton. Be able to demonstrate the major joints involved in dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle, and inversion and eversion of the foot. Identify the longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot, and their major sources of support (bony, ligamentous and muscular).

7. Identify the major deep and superficial veins draining the lower limb and the connections between the two. Indicate the primary mechanisms responsible for moving venous blood from the lower limb toward the heart.

8. Trace the course of lymphatic drainage of the lower limb, indicating the locations of major aggregations of lymph nodes and interconnections between nodes.

Dissection 6 The Face and Cranial Contents - Dissection Team C

Dissector pp. 185-200 Date: 9/14, 9/19 Presentations: 9/27

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Follow the course of the major sensory and motor nerves and their branches to the face and scalp. Indicate the source (cranial nerve) of each and predict the deficit which would be expected to follow injury to each.

2. Trace the flow of blood into and out of the face and scalp. Indicate the major supply and drainage to this vascular network and identify known vascular interconnections.

3. Follow the course of each of the cranial nerves from their origin on the surface of the brain to their exit from the cranial cavity. Indicate the foramina passesd through by each cranial nerve and the relationship between the course of each cranial nerve and known vascular structures.

4. Trace the flow of blood into and out of the cranial cavity. Indicate known vascular interconnections. Follow the flow of blood through the cerebral arterial circle indicating the region of brain supplied by each major branch and known vascular interconnections.

5. Identify the three layers of meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord and folds of dura mater which subdivide the cranium. Identify each of the cranial nerves as it leaves the cranial cavity and indicate the relationships of each nerve to the folds of dura mater and venous sinuses along its course.

Dissection 7 The Eye and Orbit - Dissection Team A

Dissector pp. 201-206 Dates: 9/21, 9/26 Presentations: 9/28

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the bony elements of the orbit on a skull. Indicate the structures lying superior, inferior, medial and lateral to it, and the position of the eyeball relative to the orbit.

2. Identify the extra-ocular muscles and indicate the nerve supply to each and its primary action. Predict the functional deficit resulting from damage to each nerve.

3. Follow the course of autonomic nervous supply to orbital structures,

indicating the pre- and post-ganglionic sources of innervation.

4. Trace the flow of blood into the orbit and orbital structures.

Dissection 8: The Neck - Dissection Team B

Dissector pp. 206-214 Dates: 9/28, 10/3 Presentations: 10/5

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the cervical vertebrae, their articulations with one another, and the types of movements possible between different cervical vertebrae.

2. Trace the flow of arterial blood through the neck including vessels that pass through the neck without branching, and those that send branches to viscera and muscles of the neck.

3. Trace the pathways for venous drainage through the neck. Note the regions drained by tributaries of the interal and external jugular veins and subclavian veins. Note the differences between the patterns of arterial blood supply of the neck and venous drainage of the neck.

4. Trace the course of nerves through the neck noting especially:

a. the portions of the brachial plexus which are present in the neck region.

b. the sensory and motor branches of the cervical plexus, their course and distribution in the neck and their relationship to major bony, muscular, or vascular landmarks in the region. Predict the functional deficits which would result from damage to any of the cervical components of the brachial plexus.

c. the branches of cranial nerves IX-XII seen in the neck and their rela- tionship to major bony, muscular and vascular landmarks in the region. Predict the functional deficits which would result from damage to any of these nerves or their branches in the neck region

d. the extension of the upper part of the sympathetic trunk into the neck region.

5. Identify the sources of arterial blood supply to the thyroid and parathyroid glands and contrast it with the pattern of venous drainage.

6. Trace the lymphatic drainage of the neck to the deep cervical lymph nodes,and indicate the drainage of these nodes to major lymph trunks or vasculature of the neck.

7. Identify the muscles of the neck, and indicate their major actions and sources of innervation. Indicate the relationship of each of the muscle groups to the different fascial layers of the neck.

Dissection 9: Pharynx & Larynx, Ear - Dissection Team C

Dissector pp. 224-226, 235-239 plus syllabus instructions Dates: 10/5, 10/10 Presentations: 10/11

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the three pharyngeal constrictor muscles and their anterior attachments to bony/cartilagenous structures.

2. Identify the three small longitudinal muscles of the pharynx.

3. Identify the major cartilages of the larynx and the muscles which bring about their movement. Identify the role played by each of these muscles in the control of vocal pitch and/or the control of the size of the rima glottidis.

4. Follow the course of sensory and motor innervation of the larynx. Predict the functional consequences of damage to the different nerves comprising this innervation.

5. Identify the components of the middle ear and middle ear cavity and indicate the relationship of each to the internal carotid artery, the internal jugular vein and the facial nerve.

Dissection 10: Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine Fossae, Nose and Mouth - Dissection Team A Dissection instructions in Syllabus and Dissector pp. 216-220, 227-237 - Dates: 10/12, 10/17 Presentation: 10/18

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the boundaries of the infratemporal fossa. Identify the muscles of mastication, their sources of innervation and their major actions in chewing.

2. Trace the flow of blood through the maxillary artery and its major branches. Note the regions supplied and the interconnections between branches. Trace the flow of blood into the nasal and oral cavities. Indicate the major sources of blood supply to these regions and any known vascular interconnections.

3. Follow the course of the major nerves supplying the infratemporal nasal and oral cavities. Indicate the source of and region supplied by and the functional components carried by each nerve. Describe the sensory and motor nerve supply to the tongue. Identify the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, the innervation, and their actions.

4. Trace the flow of air into each of the paranasal sinuses, noting the communication with the nasal cavity. Indicate the relationships of each of the sinuses to the surrounding oral, orbital and cranial cavities.

5. Identify the muscles of the soft palate, their sources of innervation and their major actions.

6. Identify the parotid, submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands. Trace the course of their innervation and follow the flow of saliva from each gland to the mouth.

Dissection 11: Thoracic Wall, Pleura, Lungs - Dissection Team B

Dissector pp. 7-23 Dates: 10/19, 10/23 Presentations: 10/25

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the different parts of a typical rib and differences between it and one of the atypical ribs.

2. Trace the flow of blood into and out of a typical intercostal space, indicate the organization of arterial and venous elements, possible collateral vascular pathways, and their relationships to the different muscles of the thoracic wall.

3. Follow the course of a nervous impulse from a given spot on the surface of the thorax back into the central nervous system. Describe the course of a typical muscle nerve in the thorax.

4. Identify the parietal and visceral pleura, their different components, the pleural recesses, and the boundaries of the pleura in projection onto the body surface.

5. Trace the course of typical autonomic neurons in the thorax indicating the source, location and termination of pre- and post-ganglionic elements.

6. Identify branches of the bronchial tree and of pulmonary arteries, and the tributaries of pulmonary veins on the hilar surface of each lung. Identify impressions made on the surfaces of each lung by surrounding structures.

7. Identify the lobes of the right and left lungs. Define a bronchopulmonary segment.

8. Identify the bony landmarks of the thoracic wall and the surface projections of the major thoracic viscera (lungs, including fissures; heart; great vessels), the pericardium, the pleural reflections, and the diaphragm.

Dissection 12: The Heart and Mediastinum - Dissection Team C

Dissector pp. 23-37 Dates: 10/26, 10/31 Presentations: 11/1

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the parietal and visceral pericardia, their relationship to the parietal pleurae, and their projections onto the body surface.

2. Trace the course of blood through the right and left sides of the heart, indicating the internal structures of each chamber and the anatomical disposition of each of the valves. Indicate the projections of each of the

valves onto the body surface.

3. Follow the course of blood through each of the major coronary vessels. Indicate which vessels supply the main flow to each of the chambers and the interventricular septum and possible alternate or collateral vascular

pathways.

4. Trace the presumed path of impulse conduction through the heart, beginning at the approximate location of the SA node.

5. Trace the course of the vagus nerve through the mediastinum. Identify its major branches in the mediastinum and their targets.

6. Follow the course of blood through the heart and great vessels in fetal life. Trace the flow of blood through the great vessels in adults.

7. Trace the flow of blood in the azygous system of veins and indicate any collateral connections to other venous systems.

8. Identify projections of the diaphragm onto the body surface. Identify its innervation and indicate its segmental source and the pathways taken by these nerves to reach their destination.

9. Trace the flow of lymph through the thoracic duct. Indicate the source of afferent lymphatics to the duct and its termination. Follow the course of other lymphatic drainage of the thorax.

Dissection 13: Abdominal Wall, Inguinal Region & Peritoneum Dissection Team A

Dissector pp. 43-62 Dates: 11/2, 11/7 Presentations: 11/8

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Contrast the anatomical organization of the cutaneous innervation and vascular supply of the abdominal and thoracic walls in terms of: their segmental organizations and the relationship of nerves to muscle layers.

2. Identify the muscular and ligamentous components of the inguinal canal in both males and females. Be able to demonstrate the surface projections of the abdominal muscles, inguinal rings, inguinal canal, and bony pelvis.

3. Follow the course of the testes as they descend from the posterior abdomen into the scrotum. Indicate the structures passed through, and identify the homologies between scrotal and abdominal structures. Perform a similar analysis of the descent of the ovaries into the pelvis in females.

4. Identify the fascial and muscular layers of the abdomen, emphasizing those passed through as a result of a surgical incision through the rectus abdominis muscle above the umbilicus and/or just above the pubic symphysis.

5. Identify parietal and visceral peritoneum, their major reflections, and the boundaries of their surface projections.

6. Indicate which of the abdominal organs are interperitoneal or retroperitoneal. Identify the surface projections of each of the organs.

7. Identify the boundaries of the omental bursa, its communication with the abdominal cavity and organs in anterior, posterior, superior and inferior relation to it.

8. Identify the parts and peritoneal coverings of the liver. Follow the course of bile from the liver, into and out of the gall bladder and into the duodenum.

Dissection 14: Abdominopelvic Cavity - Dissection Team B

Dissector pp. 62-78 Dates: 11/9, 11/14 Presentations: 11/21

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration.

1. Follow the course of exocrine pancreatic secretions from their source to the duodenum. Identify the parts of the pancreas and its relationship to other abdominal organs.

2. Trace the flow of blood into and out of each of the major abdominal organs and indicate possible collateral vascular pathways.

3. Contrast the caval, portal and vertebral venous pathways draining the abdomen and indicate sources of communication between them.

4. Trace the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder, indicating the relationship of the left and right ureters to the peritoneum, posterior abdominal vasculature, and musculature. Identify the surface projections of the kidneys and ureters.

5. Identify the components of the lumbosacral nerve plexus and indicate the segmental source of origin and the peripheral distribution of each.

6. Follow all of the possible courses of autonomic nervous impulses to the abdominal and pelvic organs. Indicate the source of both pre- and post- ganglionic elements.

7. Identify the attachments of the diaphragm and the other muscles comprising the posterior abdominal wall and indicate their surface projections.

8. Follow the course of lymphatic drainage in the abdomen and identify the major sites of lymph node aggregations.

Dissection 15: The Pelvis & Perineum - Dissection Team C

Dissector use syllabus Dates: 11/16, 11/21, 11/28 Presentations: 11/29

Objectives: At the completion of this laboratory assignment, you should be able to perform the following on a written or lab exam or in a laboratory demonstration, or in a Radiologic Anatomy Conference.

1. Identify the bony walls and bony and ligamentous landmarks of the pelvis. For the female, indicate the importance of bony landmarks in relation to the major events of pregnancy and childbirth.

2. Identify the normal position and anatomical relationships of the pelvic viscera. Describe the changes in these relationships that take place during filling and emptying of the bladder, and with the enlargement of the uterus during pregnancy.

3. Identify the extent of the peritoneal cavity and its folds and reflections in the male and female pelvis and their relationship to the pelvic contents. Distinguish between the ligaments which are formed by folds of peritoneum and ligaments which are formed by condensations of visceral pelvic fascia in terms of their function and relative position in the pelvic cavity.

4. Identify the pelvic diaphragm and its components. Identify the urogenital diaphragm and its components. Indicate the relationship of each to the genito urinary tracts in the male and female. Describe the anatomical relationships between the peritoneal cavity, the visceral pelvic fascia, the pelvic diaphragm, the structures of the perineum, and the urogential diaphragm.

5. Describe the sources of arterial blood supply to the structures of the pelvis and perineum, and important areas of collateral circulation. Trace the venous drainage of the pelvis and perineum and identify areas containing potentially important portal-caval anastomoses.

6. Identify the lymphatic drainage of areas of the pelvis and perineum. Identify the sites of aggregations of lymph nodes receiving lymphatic drainage from various areas of pelvis and perineum.

7. Follow the course taken by an ovum through the female reproductive tract and the pathway taken by a spermatazoon through the male reproductive tract. Identify the location, anatomical relations and function of accessory glands in the male and female reproductive tracts. Identify the role of vasculature, nerves, and muscles in normal male and female sexual function.

8. Identify the innervation of the bladder and its sphincters. Identify the openings of the ureters and urethra in the bladder wall. Describe the loca- tion and anatomical relations of the internal and external urethral sphinc- ters. Describe the anatomical basis for control of micturition.

9. Identify the rectum and anus and the anal sphincters. Describe the innervation of the rectum and the anal sphincters. Describe the anatomical basis for control of defecation.