as a human toddler will indignantly throw down a cracker if he
sees his friend receive a cupcake, monkeys will turn down previously
acceptable rewardscucumbersif their partners get sweet
grapes for doing equal or less work.
addition to revealing emotions such as grief and empathy, monkeys
may have an innate sense of fairness, according to researchers
at Emorys Yerkes National Primate Research Center and
the Living Links Center. In the first experimental demonstration
of its kind, a team led by primatologists Sarah Brosnan and
Frans de Waal have shown that non-human primates respond negatively
to unequal reward distribution, a reaction often seen in humans
based on a universal instinct toward fairness. The findings
were published in the Nature journal.
the study, researchers used cucumbers and grapes to test brown
capuchin monkeys reaction to injustice. The monkeys consistently
refused the cucumbers if they saw their partners receiving the
grapes for the same effort or less.
results support a developing school of thought about human behavior:
that economic decision-making is based as much on an emotional
idea of fairness as on rational considerations. Identifying
such reactions in nonhuman primates offers insight into how
these feeling-driven responses developed, providing new perspective
on why people make certain economic decisions.
often forgo an available reward because it is not what they
expect or think is fair, Brosnan says. Such irrational
behavior has baffled scientists and economists, who traditionally
have argued that all economic decisions are rational. Our findings
in nonhuman primates indicate the emotional sense of fairness
plays a key role in such decision-making.P.P.P.
does prostate cancer become bone cancer?
collaborative group of cancer researchers at Emory has been
granted $7.6 million from the National Cancer Institute to study
the pathways and mechanisms through which prostate cancer metastasizes
to bone cancer. The project is led by Leland Chung, director
of Urological Research in Emorys Department of Urology.
Nearly 90 percent of all men who die from prostate cancer experience