Hartzell Lab


Duran C, Qu Z, Osunkoya AO, Cui, Y, and Hartzell HC. Anos 3-7 in the Anoctamin/Tmem16 Cl channel family are intracellular proteins. Am. J. Physiol. 302:C482-93 (2012). PDF

Xiao Q, Yu K, Perez-Cornejo P, Cui Y, Arreola J, Hartzell HC. Voltage- and calcium-dependent gating of TMEM16A/Ano1 chloride channels are physically coupled by the first intracellular loop. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 108:8891-8896 (2011). PDF

Duran, C. and H.C. Hartzell. Physiological roles and diseases of Tmem16/Anoctamin proteins: are they all chloride channels? Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 32: 685–692 (2011). PDF

Sheridan JT, Worthington EN, Yu K, Gabriel SE, Hartzell HC, Tarran R. Characterization of the Oligomeric Structure of the Ca2+-activated Cl- Channel Ano1/TMEM16A. J Biol Chem. 286:1381-8. (2011). PDF

Yu K, R Lujan, A Marmorstein, S Gabriel, and HC Hartzell. Bestrophin-2 mediates bicarbonate transport by goblet cells in mammalian colon. J. Clin. Invest. 120, 1722-35 (2010). PDF

Gu J, Lee CW, Fan Y, Komlos D, Tang X, Sun C, Yu K, Hartzell HC, Chen G, Bamburg JR, Zheng JQ. ADF/cofilin-mediated actin dynamics regulate AMPA receptor trafficking during synaptic plasticity. Nat Neurosci. 13:1208-15 (2010). PDF

Rui Y, Gu J, Yu K, Hartzell HC and Zheng JQ. Inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking at hippocampal synapses by β-amyloid oligomers: the mitochondrial contribution. Molecular Brain 3:10 (2010). PDF

Xiao Q, Hartzell HC, Yu K. Bestrophins and retinopathies. Pflugers Arch. 460:559-69 (2010). PDF

Romanenko VG, Catalan MA, Brown DA, Putzier I, Hartzell HC, Marmorstein AD, Gonzalez-Begne M, Rock JR, Harfe BD, Melvin JE. Tmem16A encodes the Ca 2+-activated Cl- channel in mouse submandibular salivary gland acinar cells. J Biol Chem. 285:12990-3001 (2010). PDF

Zhang Y, JB Stanton, J Wu, K Yu, HC Hartzell, NS Peachey, LY Marmorstein and AD Marmorstein. Suppression of Ca2+ Signaling in a Mouse Model of Best Disease. Human Molecular Genetics 19:1108-18. (2010). PDF

Duran C, CH Thompson, Q Xiao, and HC Hartzell. Chloride Channels: Often Enigmatic, Rarely Predictable. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 72:95-121 (2010). PDF

Xiao Q, Yu K, Cui Y, Hartzell HC. Dys-regulation of human Bestrophin-1 by ceramide-induced dephosphorylation. J. Physiol. 587.18., 4379-4391 (2009). PDF

Hartzell, H.C., K.Yu, Q. Xiao, L.T. Chien, and Z. Qu. Anoctamin / TMEM16 Family Members are Ca2+-Activated Cl- Channels. J. Physiol. 587.10., 2127-2139 (2009). PDF

Hartzell, H.C. CaCl-ing channels get the last laugh. Science 322, 534-535 (2008). PDF

Hartzell, H.C. Chloride Channels: An historical perspective. In Physiology and Pathology of Chloride Transporters and Channels in the Nervous System: From Molecules to Diseases. F. Alvarez-Leefmans and E. Delpire, editors. 2009.

Yu K, Xiao Q, Cui G, Lee A, Hartzell HC. The best disease-linked Cl- channel hBest1 regulates CaV 1.3 (L-type) Ca2+ channels via src-homology-binding domains. J. Neurosci. 28:5660-70 (2008). PDF

Chien, L-T. and H.C. Hartzell. Rescue of Volume-Regulated Anion Current by Bestrophin Mutants with Altered Charge Selectivity. J. Gen. Physiol. 132, 537-546 (2008). PDF

Xiao, Q., A. Prussia, K. Yu, Y.Y. Cui, and H.C. Hartzell. Regulation of Bestrophin Cl Channels by Calcium: Role of the C-terminus. J. Gen. Physiol. 132:681-92. (2008). PDF

Qu, Z. and H.C. Hartzell. Bestrophin Cl- Channels are Highly Permeable to HCO3-. Am. J Physiol Cell Physiol. 294:C1371-7 (2008). pdf

Bakall, B., P. McLaughlin, J.B. Stanton, H.C. Hartzell, L.Y. Marmorstein, and A.D. Marmorstein. Bestrophin-2 is involved in the generation of intraocular pressure. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49: 1563-1570 (2008). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., Z. Qu, K. Yu, Q. Xiao, L.T. Chien. Molecular Physiology of Bestrophins: A Family of Multi-functional Chloride Channels Linked to Macular Degeneration. Physiol. Rev. 88, 639-672 (2008). pdf.

Hartzell, H.C. The stress of relaxation. Science 317, 1331-1332 (2007). pdf

Chien, L.T., and H. C. Hartzell. Drosophila Bestrophin-1 Chloride Current Is Dually Regulated by Calcium and Cell Volume. J. Gen. Physiol. 130, 513-534 (2007). pdf

Yu, K., Z. Qu, Y. Cui, and H. C. Hartzell. Chloride Channel Activity of Bestrophin Mutants Associated with Mild or Late-Onset Macular Degeneration. Invest. Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 48, 4694-4705 (2007). pdf

Qu, Z., K. Yu, Y. Cui, C. Ying, and Criss Hartzell. Activation of Bestrophin Cl Channels is Regulated by C-terminal Domains. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 17460-17467 (2007). pdf

Marchant , D., K. Yu , K. Bigot, O. Roche, A. Germain, D. Bonneau, V. Drouin-Garraud, D. F. Schorderet, D. Schmidt, P. Le Neindre, C. Marsac, M. Menasche, J.L. Dufier, R. Fischmeister, H. C. Hartzell and M. Abitbol. New VMD2 gene mutations identified in patients affected by Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy. J. Med. Genetics 44(3):e70. Epub 2007 Feb 7. pdf

Chien, L.T., Zhi-Ren Zhang, and H. Criss Hartzell. Single Cl Channels Activated by Ca in Drosophila S2 Cells Are Mediated By Bestrophins. J. Gen. Physiol. 128, 247 – 259 (2006). pdf

Yu, K., Yuanyuan Cui, and H. Criss Hartzell. The Bestrophin Mutation A243V Linked to Adult-Onset Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy Impairs Its Chloride Channel Function. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 56 – 61 (2006). pdf

Qu, Z., Chien, L-T., Cui, Y., and H. C. Hartzell. The anion-selective pore of the bestrophins, a family of chloride channels associated with retinal degeneration. J. Neurosci. 26, 5411 - 5419 (2006). pdf

Qu, Z., Y. Cui, C. Hartzell. A short motif in the C-terminus of mouse bestrophin-4 inhibits its activation as a Cl channel. FEBS Lett. 580, 2141-2146 (2006). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., Z. Qu, I. Putzier, L. Artinian, L.T. Chien, and Y. Cui. Looking Cl Channels Straight in the Eye: Bestrophins,l Lipofuscinosis, and Retinal Degneraton. Physiology (Bethesda) 20, 292-302 (2005). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., I. Putzier, and J. Arreola. Calcium-activated chloride channels. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 67, 719-758 (2005). pdf

Fischmeister, R. and H. C. Hartzell. Volume sensitivity of the bestrophin family of chloride channels. J. Physiol. 562, 477-491 (2005). pdf

Qu, Z. and H. C. Hartzell. Determinants of anion permeation in the second transmembrane domain of the mouse bestrophin-2 chloride channel. J. Gen. Physiol. 124, 371-382 (2004). pdf

Qu, Z., Fischmeister, R., and H.C. Hartzell. Mouse bestrophin-2 is a bona fide Cl channel: identification of a residue important in anion binding and conduction. J. Gen. Physiol. 123, 327-340 (2004). pdf

Faundez,V. and H.C. Hartzell. Intracellular Chloride Channels: Determinants of Function in the Endosomal Pathway. Science STKE. Vol. 2004, Issue 233, pp. re8, 18 May 2004 [DOI: 10.1126/stke.2332004re8]. pdf

Qu. Z., R.W. Wei, W. Mann, and H.C. Hartzell. Two bestrophins cloned from Xenopus laevis oocytes express Ca-activated Cl currents. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 49563-49572 (2003). pdf

Zhang, Y.M., L. Shang, H.C. Hartzell, M. Narlow, L. Cribbs, and S.C. Dudley. Characterization and regulation of T-type Ca2+ channels in embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Am. J. Physiol. 285: H2770 - 2779 (2003). pdf

Qu, Z. R. Wei, and H.C. Hartzell. Characterization of Ca2+-activated Cl- Currents in Mouse Kidney Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells. Am. J. Physiol. 285, F326-F335 (2003). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., and Z. Qu. Chloride currents in acutely isolated Xenopus retinal pigment epithelial cells. J. Physiol. 549.2, 453-469 (2003). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., Z. Qu, K. Machaca, and N. McCarty. The endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl Channel in Xenopus oocytes. p3 - 39 in: Ca2+-activated Cl channels: Current Topics in Biomembranes Vol. 53. C.M. Fuller (ed.) Academic Press, New York. (2002). pdf

Zhang, Y.M., Hartzell, C., Narlow, M., Dudley, S.C. Stem Cell–Derived Cardiomyocytes Demonstrate Arrhythmic Potential. Circulation.106:1294-1299 (2002). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., and Katz, A.M. Regulation of Cardiac Ion Channels and Transporters. Chapter 5 in Foundations of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Basic concepts and fundamental approaches. P.M. Spooner and M.R. Rosen (eds). pp 97-119. Marcel Dekker, New York (2001)

Qu, Z. and H.C. Hartzell. Functional geometry of the permeation pathway of Ca-activated Cl channels inferred from analysis of voltage-dependent block. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 18423-18429 (2001). pdf

Qu, Z. and H.C. Hartzell. Anion permeation in Ca2+-activated Cl- channels. J. Gen. Physiol. 116, 825-844 (2000). pdf

Kuruma, A., Y. Hirayama, and H. C. Hartzell. A hyperpolarization- and acid-activated non-selective cation current in Xenopus oocytes. Am. J. Physiol. 279: C1401-C1413 (2000). pdf

Kuruma, A. and H.C. Hartzell. Bimodal control of a Ca2+-activated Cl channel by different Ca2+ signals. J. Gen. Physiol. 115, 59-80 (2000). pdf

Machaca, K. and H.C. Hartzell. Adenophostin A and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate differentially activate Cl currents in Xenopus oocytes due to disparate Ca release kinetics. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 4824-4831 (1999). pdf

Kuruma, A. and H.C. Hartzell. Dynamics of regulation of Cl currents in Xenopus oocytes. Am. J. Physiol. 276 (Cell Physiol.45), C161-C175 (1999). pdf

Machaca, K. and H.C. Hartzell. Reversible Ca gradients between the sub-plasmalemma and cytosol differentially activate two distinct Cl channel effectors. J. Gen. Physiol. 113: 249-266 (1999). pdf

Apparsundaram,S., Galli, A.,DeFelice, L.J., Hartzell, H.C., and Blakely, R.D. Acute regulation of norepinephrine transport: I. PKC-linked muscarinic receptors influence transport capacity and transporter density in SK-N-SH cells. J. Pharm. Exper. Therap. 287: 733-43, 1998. pdf

Hartzell, H.C. and Machaca, K. Asymmetrical distribution of Ca-activated Cl channels in Xenopus oocytes. Biophysical Journal 74, 1286-1295 (1998). pdf

Hirayama, Y. and Hartzell, H.C. Effects of protein phosphatase and kinase inhibitors on the cardiac Ca and Cl currents in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Molecular Pharmacology 52, 725-734 (1997). pdf

Apparsundaram, S., Moore, K.R., Malone, M.D., Hartzell, H.C., and Blakely, R.D. Molecular cloning and charcterization of an l-epinephrine transporter from sympathetic ganglia of the bullfrog, Rana catesbiana. J. Neurosci. 17, 2691-2702 (1997). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., K. Machaca, and Y. Hirayama. Effects of Adenophostin-A and IP3 on Cl currents in Xenopus oocytes. Molecular Pharmacology 51, 683-692 (1997). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. Overview: channels and channel proteins. in Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology of cardiac ion channels and transporters. M. Morad, S. Ebashi, W. Trautwein, Y Kurachi (eds.). Kluwer (1997)

Hartzell, H.C. Activation of different Cl currents in Xenopus oocytes by Ca liberated from stores and by capacitative Ca influx. J. Gen. Physiol. 108, 1-19 (1996). pdf

Petit-Jacques, J. and Hartzell, H.C. Effect of arachidonic acid on the L-type calcium current in frog cardiac myocytes. J. Physiol. 493, 67-81 (1996).

Hartzell, H.C. and Rinderknecht, A. Calphostin C, a widely-used inhibitor of protein kinase C, potently inhibits L-type Ca channels by a mechanism that does not involve protein kinase C. Am. J. Physiol. 270, C1293-C1299 (1996).

Méry, P-F., L. Hove-Madsen, J.-M. Chesnais, H.C. Hartzell, R. Fischmeister. Nitric oxide synthase does not participate in the negative inotropic effect of acetylcholine in the frog heart. Am. J. Physiol. 270, H1178-H1188 (1996).

Hartzell, H.C., Y. Hirayama, J. Petit-Jacques. Effects of protein phosphatase and kinase inhibitors on the cardiac L-type Ca current suggest two sites are phosphorylated by protein kinase A and another protein kinase. J. Gen. Physiol. 106, 393-414 (1995). pdf

Blakely, R.D., DeFelice, L.J., and Hartzell, H.C. Molecular physiology of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Journal of Experimental Biology 196, 263-281 (1994).

Akita, T., Joyner, R.W., Lu, C., Kumar, R., Hartzell, H.C. Developmental changes in modulation of calcium currents of rabbit ventricular cells by phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Circulation 90, 469-478 (1994).

Kumar, R., Joyner, R.W., Hartzell, H.C., Ellingsen, D., Rishi, F., Eaton, D.C., Lu, C. and Akita, T. Postnatal changes in the G-proteins, cyclic nucleotides and adenylyl cyclase activity in rabbit heart cells. J. Molec. Cell. Cardiol. 26, 1537-1550 (1994).

Quarmby, L.M. & H.C. Hartzell. Molecular Biology of G proteins and their role in cardiac excitability. in Cardiac Electrophysiology: From Cell to Bedside; 2nd edition. D.P. Zipes and J. Jalife, eds. Saunders (1994).

Quarmby, L.M. and Hartzell, H.C. Dissection of eukaryotic transmembrane signalling using Chlamydomonas. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 15, 343-349 (1994).

Quarmby, L.M., and Hartzell, H.C. Two distinct calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways can trigger deflagellation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J. Cell Biol. 124, 807-815 (1994). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. Filling the gaps in Ca channel regulation. Biophysical Journal 65, 1358-1359 (1993).

Frace, A.M., and Hartzell, H.C. Opposite effects of phosphatase inhibitors on ICa and IK in frog cardiac myocytes. J. Physiol. 472, 305-326 (1993).

Méry, P.-F., Frace, A.M., Hartzell, H.C., and Fischmeister, R. A comparative analysis of the time course of cardiac Ca2+ current response to rapid applications of β-adrenergic and dihydropyridine agonists. Nauyn-Schmeideberg's Archives of Pharmacology 348, 197-206 (1993).

Hartzell, L.B., Hartzell, H.C., L. M. Quarmby. Mechanisms of flagellar excision: role of intracellular acidification. Exper. Cell Res. 208, 148-153 (1993).

Parsons, T.D. and Hartzell, H.C. Regulation of the Ca2+ current in frog ventricular cardiomyocytes by guanosine 5'-triphosphate analogs and isoproterenol. J. Gen. Physiol. 102, 525-549 (1993). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. and Duchatelle-Gourdon, I. Regulation of the cardiac delayed rectifier K current by neurotransmitters and magnesium. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 7, 547-554 (1993).

Frace, A.M., Méry, P.-F., Fischmeister, R., and Hartzell, H.C. Rate-limiting steps in the β-adrenergic stimulation of calcium current. J. Gen. Physiol. 101, 337-353 (1993). pdf

Duchatelle-Gourdon, I., and H. C. Hartzell. Neural regulation of the cardiac calcium channel. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 3, 567-578 (1992).

Hartzell, H.C. & Fischmeister, R. Direct regulation of cardiac Ca channels by G proteins: neither proven nor necessary? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 13, 380-385 (1992).

Hartzell, H.C. and Budnitz, D. Differences in effects of forskolin and an analog on calcium currents in cardiac myocytes suggests intra- and extra- cellular sites of action. Molecular Pharmacology 41, 880-888 (1992).

Fischmeister, R., Mery, P.-F., Hartzell, H.C., & Szabo, G. Participation of a fast G protein pathway in the b-adrenergic regulation of cardiac calcium channels: neither proven nor needed. in Intracellular Regulation of Ion Channels, ed. M. Morad, Springer-Verlag 1992.

Hartzell, H.C., Méry, P.-F., Fischmeister, R. & Szabo, G. Channel control. Nature 354, 363-364 (1992).

Hartzell, H.C., Méry, P.-F., Fischmeister, R. & Szabo, G. Sympathetic regulation of cardiac calcium current is due exclusively to cAMP-dependent phosphorylation. Nature 351, 573-576 (1991).

Fischmeister, R. & H.C. Hartzell. Mini-review. Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases and Ca2+ current regulation in cardiac cells. Life Sciences 48, 2365-2376 (1991).

Duchatelle­Gourdon, I., A.A. Lagrutta, & H. C. Hartzell. Effects of Mg2+ on basal and b­adrenergic­stimulated delayed rectified potassium current in frog atrial myocytes. J. Physiol. 435, 333-347 (1991).

Parsons, T.D., A. A. Lagrutta, R.E. White, & H.C. Hartzell. Regulation of Ca2+ current in frog ventricular cardiomyocytes by 5'­guanylylimidodiphosphate and acetylcholine. J. Physiol. 432, 593-620 (1991).

Hofmann, P.A., H.C. Hartzell, & R.L. Moss. Alterations in Ca2+ sensitive tension due to partial extraction of C­protein from rat skinned cardiac myocytes and rabbit skeletal muscle fibers. J. Gen. Physiol. 97, 1141-1163 (1991). pdf

Fischmeister, R., & H.C. Hartzell. Regulation of calcium current by low­Km cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases in cardiac cells. Molecular Pharmacology, 38, 426­433 (1990).

Hartzell, H.C. & R.E. White. Regulation of the voltage­gated Ca2+ current by intracellular free magnesium studied by internal perfusion of single cardiac myocytes. in Magnesium and Excitable Cells, eds. P. Strata and E. Carbone. (1990). pdf

Duchatelle­Gourdon, I., & H.C. Hartzell. Single delayed rectifier channels in frog atrial cells. Effects of b­adrenergic agonists. Biophysical Journal 57, 903­909 (1990).

Lagrutta, A.A., I. Gourdon & H.C. Hartzell. β­Adrenergic stimulation of IK current in frog cardiomyocytes. Regulation of Potassium Transport Across Biological Membranes. L. Reuss, J.M. Russell & G. Szabo, eds. pp 443­458. University of Texas Press, Autin. (1990).

Hartzell, H.C. & R.E. White. Effects of magnesium on inactivation of the voltage­gated calcium current in cardiac myocytes. J. Gen. Physiol. . 94, 745­767 (1989). pdf

Duchatelle­Gourdon, I., A.A. Lagrutta & H.C. Hartzell. Modulation of the delayed rectifier potassium current in frog cardiomyocytes by β­adrenergic agonists and magnesium. J. Physiol. 415, 251­274 (1989).

White, R.E. & H.C. Hartzell. Magnesium ions in cardiac function: regulators of ion channels and second messengers. Biochemical Pharmacology 38, 859­867 (1989).

Simmons, M.A. & H.C. Hartzell. Roles of phosphodiesterases in regulation of calcium current in isolated cardiac myocytes. Molecular Pharmacology 33, 664­671 (1988).

Argibay, J.A., R. Fischmeister & H.C. Hartzell. Inactivation, reactivation, and pacing dependence of calcium current in frog cardiocytes: correlation with current density. J. Physiol. 401, 201­226 (1988). pdf

Hartzell, H.C., M.A. Simmons & R. Fischmeister. Regulation of the trans­sarcolemmal calcium current in isolated cardiac myocytes by acetylcholine and cyclic GMP. International Symposium on Muscarinic Cholinergic Mechanisms. M. Sokolovsky and S. Cohen, editors. Freund Publishing House, Ltd., London. pp. 149­159 (1988).

Hartzell, H.C. Regulation of cardiac ion channels by catecholamines, acetylcholine, and second messengers. Prog. Biophys. Molec. Biol. 52, 165­247 (1988).

White, R.E. & H.C. Hartzell. Effects of intracellular free magnesium on calcium current in isolated cardiac myocytes. Science 239, 778­780 (1988). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. & R. Fischmeister. Effect of forskolin and acetylcholine on calcium current in single isolated cardiac myocytes. Molecular Pharmacology 32, 639­645 (1987).

Hartzell, H.C. & M.A. Simmons. Comparison of effects of acetylcholine on calcium and potassium currents in frog atrium and ventricle. J. Physiol. 389, 411­422 (1987).

Simmons, M.A. & H.C. Hartzell. A quantitative analysis of the acetylcholine­activated potassium current in single cells from frog atrium. Pflugers Archiv 409, 454­461 (1987).

Fischmeister, R. & H.C. Hartzell. Guanosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate regulates calcium current in single cells from frog ventricle. J. Physiol. 387, 453­472 (1987).

Hartzell, H.C. The mechanism of action of norepinephrine and acetylcholine on the heart: role of protein phosphorylation. In Neurobiology of Acetylcholine, N.J. Dun & R.L. Perlman, eds. Plenum Press, N.Y. (1987).

Simmons, M.A., T. Creazzo & H.C. Hartzell. A time­ and voltage­sensitive potassium current in single cells from frog atrium. J. Gen. Physiol. 88, 739­755 (1986). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. & R. Fischmeister. Opposite effects of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP on calcium current in single heart cells. Nature 323, 273­275 (1986).

Fischmeister, R. & H.C. Hartzell. Mechanism of action of acetylcholine on calcium current in single cells from frog ventricle. J. Physiol. 376, 183­202 (1986).

Hartzell, H.C. Effects of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated C­protein on cardiac actomyosin ATPase. J. Molec. Biol. 186, 185­195 (1985).

Creazzo, T. & H.C. Hartzell. Reduction of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor number and affinity by an endogenous substance. J. Neurochem. 45, 710­718 (1985).

Hartzell, H.C. & W.S. Sale. Structure of C­protein from cardiac muscle: electron microscopic examination of low­angle rotary shadowed C­protein. J. Cell Biol. 100, 205­215 (1985). pdf

Creazzo, T., L. Titus & H.C. Hartzell. Neural Regulation of the Heart. In Neurotransmitters in Action, D. Bousfield, ed. Elsevier Biomedical Press, N.Y. (1985).

Hartzell, H.C. Book review of Protein Phosphorylation in the Nervous System by E. Nestler and P. Greengard. Science 228, 866­867 (1985).

Hartzell, H.C. & D.B. Glass. Phosphorylation of purified cardiac muscle C­protein by purified cAMP­dependent and endogenous Ca2+ ­calmodulin­dependent protein kinases. J. Biol. Chem. 259, 15587­15596 (1984). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. Phosphorylation of C­protein in intact amphibian cardiac muscle: correlation between 32P­incorporation and twitch relaxation. J. Gen. Physiol. 83, 563­588 (1984). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. Book review of Progress in Cholinergic Biology, Hainin and Goldberg, eds. Trends in Neuroscience 6, 436 (1983).

Creazzo, T., L. Titus & H.C. Hartzell. Neural Regulation of the Heart. Trends in Neuroscience 6, 430­433 (1983).

Hartzell, H.C. Physiological consequences of muscarinic receptor activation. More About Receptors; Current Reviews in Biomedicine Vol. 2. J.W. Lamble, ed. Elsevier Biomedical Press, N.Y. (1982).

Hartzell, H.C. Physiological consequences of muscarinic receptor activation. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 3, 213­214 (1982).

Hartzell, H.C. & L. Titus. Effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists on phosphorylation of a 165,000­dalton myofibrillar protein in intact cardiac muscle. J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2111­2120 (1982). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. Mechanisms of slow postsynaptic potentials. Nature 291, 539­544 (1981).

Hartzell, H.C. Distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and presynaptic nerve terminals in amphibian heart. J. Cell Biol. 86, 6­20 (1980). pdf

Hartzell, H.C. Distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in amphibian cardiac muscle. Nature 278, 569­571 (1979).

Hartzell, H.C. Adenosine receptors in frog sinus venosus: slow inhibitory potentials produced by acetylcholine and adenine compounds. J. Physiol. 293, 23­49 (1979).

Hartzell, H.C., S.W. Kuffler, R. Stickgold & D. Yoshikami. Synaptic excitation and inhibition resulting from direct action of acetylcholine on two types of chemoreceptors on individual amphibian parasympathetic neurones. J. Physiol. 271, 817­846 (1977).

Hartzell, H.C., S.W. Kuffler & D. Yoshikami. The number of acetylcholine molecules in a quantum and the interaction between quanta at the subsynaptic membrane of the skeletal neuromuscular synapse. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology 40, 176­186 (1975).

Hartzell, H.C., S.W. Kuffler & D. Yoshikami. Postsynaptic potentiation: interaction between quanta of acetylcholine at the skeletal neuromuscular synapse. J. Physiol. 251, 427­463 (1975).

Burden, S.J., H.C. Hartzell & D. Yoshikami. Acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular synapses: phylogenetic differences detected by snake alpha­neurotoxins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 3245­3249 (1975).

Fambrough, D.M., H.C. Hartzell, J.A. Powell, J.E. Rash & N. Joseph. On the differentiation and organization of the surface membrane of a postsynaptic cell ­ the skeletal muscle fiber. In Synaptic Transmission and Neuronal Interaction. M.V.L. Bennett, ed. Raven Press (1974).

Fambrough, D.M., H.C. Hartzell, J.E. Rash & A.K. Ritchie. Receptor properties of developing muscle. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 228, 47­62 (1974).

Hartzell, H.C. & D.M. Fambrough. Acetylcholine receptor production and incorporation into membranes of developing muscle fibers. Develop. Biol. 30, 153­165 (1973).

Hartzell, H.C. & D.M. Fambrough. Acetylcholine receptors: distribution and extrajunctional density in rat diaphragm after denervation correlated with acetylcholine sensitivity. J. Gen. Physiol. 60, 248­262 (1972). pdf

Fambrough, D.M. & H.C. Hartzell. Acetylcholine receptors: number and distribution at neuromuscular junctions in rat diaphragm. Science 176, 189­191 (1972).