Articles

2014

Brosnan, S. F., & de Waal, F. B. (2014). Evolution of responses to (un) fairness. Science, 346(6207), 1251776.
Mingle, M.E., Eppley, T.M., Campbell, M.W., Hall, K., Horner, V., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Chimpanzees prefer african and indian music over silence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition. doi: 10.1037/xan0000032
Campbell, M. W. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Chimpanzees empathize with group mates and humans, but not with baboons or unfamiliar chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 281 20140013. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.0013
Clay, Z. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Sex and strife: Post-conflict sexual contacts in bonobos. Behaviour. doi:10.1163/1568539X-00003155
de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Natural normativity: The ‘is’ and ‘ought’ of animal behavior. Behaviour, 151 185-204. doi:10.1163/1568539X-00003146
Hall, K., Oram, M. W., Campbell, M. W., Eppley, T. M., Byrne, R. W., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Using cross correlations to investigate how chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use conspecific gaze cues to extract and exploit information in a foraging competition. American Journal of Primatology. doi:10.1002/ajp.22279
Plotnik, J. M. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) reassure others in distress. PeerJ, 2, e278. doi:10.7717/peerj.278
Proctor, D., Williamson, R. A., Latzman, R. D., de Waal, F. B. M., & Brosnan, S. F. (2014). Gambling primates: Reactions to a modified Iowa Gambling Task in humans, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys. Animal Cognition (17) 983-995. doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0730-7
Suchak, M., Eppley, T. M., Campbell, M. W., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Ape duos and trios: spontaneous cooperation with free partner choice in chimpanzees. PeerJ, 2, e417. doi:10.7717/peerj.417
Webb, C. E., Franks, B., Romero, T., Higgins, E. T., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Individual differences in chimpanzee reconciliation relate to social switching behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 90, 57-63. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.01.014

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2013

Clay, Z. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2013a). Bonobos respond to distress in others: Consolation across the age spectrum. PLoS One, 8, e55206. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055206
Clay, Z. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2013b). Development of socio-emotional competence in bonobos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas.1316449110
Crick, J., Suchak, M., Eppley, T. M., Campbell, M. W., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2013). The roles of food quality and sex in chimpanzee sharing behavior (Pan troglodytes). Behaviour, 150, 1203-1224. doi:10.1163/1568539X-00003087
de Waal, F. B. M. & Gavrilets, S. (2013). Monogamy with a purpose. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 15167-15168. doi:10.1073/pnas.1315839110
Eppley, T. M., Suchak, M., Crick, J., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2013). Perseverance and food sharing among closely affiliated female chimpanzees. Primates. doi:10.1007/s10329-013-0374-2
Proctor, D. & Brosnan, S. F. (2013). Visual processing speed in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 26, 166-175.
Proctor, D., Brosnan, S. F., de Waal, F. B. M. (2013). How fairly do chimpanzees play the ultimatum game? Communicative & Integrative Biology, 6, e23819. doi:10.4161/cib.23819
Proctor, D., Williamson, R. A., de Waal, F. B. M., & Brosnan, S. F. (2013a). Chimpanzees play the ultimatum game. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Advance online publication. doi:10.1073/pnas.1220806110
Proctor, D., Williamson, R. A., de Waal, F. B. M., & Brosnan, S. F. (2013b). Reply to Jensen et al.: Equitable offers are not rationally maximizing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, E1838. doi:10.1073/pnas.1304306110

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2012

Balasubramaniam, K. N. et al. (2012). Hierarchical steepness and phylogenetic models: Phylogenetic signals in Macaca. Animal Behaviour, 83, 1207-1218. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.02.012
Clay, Z., Smith, C. L., & Blumstein, D. T. (2012). Food-associated vocalizations in mammals and birds: What do these calls really mean? Animal Behaviour, 88, 323-327. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.12.008
Clay, Z. & Zuberbühler, K. (2012). Communication during sex among female bonobos: Effects of dominance, solicitation and audience. Scientific Reports, 2, 291. doi:10.1038/srep00291
de Waal, F. B. M. (2012a). Research chimpanzees may get a break. PLoS Biology, 10, e1001291. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001291
de Waal, F. B. M. (2012b). The antiquity of empathy. Science, 336, 874-876. doi:10.1126/science.1220999
Hattori, Y., Leimgruber, K., Fujita, K., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2012). Food-related tolerance in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) varies with knowledge of the partner’s previous food-consumption. Behaviour, 149, 171-185. doi:10.1163/156853912X634124
Mitani, J. C. et al. (2012). Obituary: Toshisada Nishida (March 3, 1941–June 7, 2011). International Journal of Primatology, 33, 10-18. doi:10.1007/s10764-011-9571-2
Salwiczek, L. H., Prétôt, L., Demarta, L., Proctor, D., Essler, J., Pinto, A. I., … Bshary, R. (2012). Adult cleaner wrasse outperform capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and orangutans in a complex foraging task derived from cleaner–client reef fish cooperation. PLoS ONE, 7, e49068. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049068
Suchak, M., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2012). Monkeys benefit from reciprocity without the cognitive burden. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 15191-15196. doi:10.1073/pnas.1213173109

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2011

Campbell, M. W. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy. PloS One, 6, e18283. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018283
Clay, Z. (2011). Girl power: The roots of female dominance and bonding in bonobos. Radical Anthropology, 5, 5-11.
Clay, Z. & Iacoboni, M. (2011). Mirroring fictional others. In E. Schellekens & P. Goldie (Eds.), The aesthetic mind: Philosophy and psychology (pp. 313-329). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199691517.003.0019
Clay, Z., Pika, S., Gruber, T., & Zuberbühler, K. (2011). Female bonobos use copulation calls as social signals. Biology Letters, 7, 513- 516. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.1227
Clay, Z. & Zuberbühler, K. (2011a). Bonobos extract meaning from call sequences. PLoS One, 6, e18786. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018786
Clay, Z. & Zuberbühler, K. (2011b). The structure of bonobo copulation calls during reproductive and non-reproductive sex. Ethology, 117, 1158- 1169. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2011.01975.x
de Waal, F. B. M. (2011a). Empathy in primates and other mammals. In J. Decety (Ed.), Empathy: From bench to bedside (pp. 87-106). Cambridge: MIT Press.
de Waal, F. B. M. (2011b). What is an animal emotion? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1224, 191-206. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05912.x
de Waal, F. B. M. (2011c). Toshisada Nishida (1941–2011): Chimpanzee rapport. PLoS Biology, 9, e1001185. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001185
Dindo, M., Leimgruber, K. L., Ahmed, R., Whiten, A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011.). Observer choices during experimental foraging tasks in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). American Journal of Primatology, 73, 1-8. doi:10.1002/ajp.20962
Horner, V, Carter, J. D., Suchak, M., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 13847-13851. doi:10.1073/pnas.1111088108.
Plotnik, J. M., Lair, R., Suphachoksahakun, W., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). Elephants know when they need a helping trunk in a cooperative task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 5116-5121. doi:10.1073/pnas.1101765108
Pokorny, J. J., Webb, C. E., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). An inversion effect modified by expertise in capuchin monkeys. Animal Cognition, 14, 839-846. doi:10.1007/s10071-011-0417-2
Proctor, D. & Brosnan, S. F. (2011). Political primates: What other primates can tell us about the evolutionary roots of our own political behavior. In R. Mcdermott & P. Hatemi (Eds.), Man is by nature a political animal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Proctor, D. P., Lambeth, S. P., Schapiro, S. J., & Brosnan, S. F. (2011). Male chimpanzees’ grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status. American Journal of Primatology, 73, 1-8. doi:10.1002/ajp.20964
Romero, T., Castellanos, M. A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2011). Post-conflict affiliation by chimpanzees with aggressors: Other-oriented versus selfish political strategy. PLoS One, 6, e22173. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022173

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2010

Brosnan, S. F., Houser, D., Leimgruber, K., Xiao, E., Chen, T., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2010). Competing demands of prosociality and equity in monkeys. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31, 279-288. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.02.003
de Waal, F. B. M. & Ferrari, P. F. (2010). Towards a bottom-up perspective on animal and human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 201-207. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.03.003
de Waal, F. B. M. & Suchak, M. (2010). Prosocial primates: Selfish and unselfish motivations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 365, 2711-2722. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0119
Dindo, M., Thierry, B., de Waal, F. B. M., & Whiten, A. (2010). Conditional copying fidelity in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124, 29-37. doi:10.1037/a0018005
Gruber, T., Clay, Z., & Zuberbühler, K. (2010). A comparison of bonobo and chimpanzee tool use: Evidence for a female bias in the Pan lineage. Animal Behaviour, 80, 1023-1033. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.09.005
Horner, V., Proctor, D., Bonnie, K. E., Whiten, A., de Waal, F. B. M. (2010). Prestige affects cultural learning in chimpanzees. PLoS One, 5, e10625. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010625
Romero, T., Castellanos, M. A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2010). Consolation as possible expression of sympathetic concern among chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 12110-12115. doi:10.1073/pnas.1006991107
Romero, T. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2010). Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) consolation: Third-Party identity as a window on possible function. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124, 278-286. doi:10.1037/a0019144

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2009

Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2009). Cebus apella tolerate intermittent unreliability in human experimenters. International Journal of Primatology, 30, 663-674. doi:10.1007/s10764-009-9366-x
Campbell, M. W., Carter, J. D., Proctor, D., Eisenberg, M. L., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2009). Computer animations stimulate contagious yawning in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276, 4255-4259. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1087
Clay, Z. & Zuberbühler, K. (2009). Food associated calling sequences in captive bonobos. Animal Behaviour, 77, 1387-1396. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.02.016
de Waal, F. B. M. (2009). Darwin's last laugh. Nature, 460, 175.
de Waal, F. B. M. & Bonnie, K. E. (2009). In tune with others: The social side of primate culture. In: K. Laland & G. Galef (Eds.), The question of animal culture (pp. 19-39). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dindo, M., Whiten, A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2009a). In-group conformity sustains different foraging traditions in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). PLoS One, 4, e7858. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007858
Dindo, M., Whiten, A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2009b). Social facilitation of exploratory foraging behavior in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). American Journal of Primatology, 71, 419-426. doi:10.1002/ajp.20669
Pokorny, J. J. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2009a). Face recognition in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123, 151-160. doi:10.1037/a0014073
Pokorny, J. J. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2009b). Monkeys recognize the faces of group mates in photographs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 21539-21543. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912174106

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2008

de Waal, F. B. M. (2008). Putting the altruism back in altruism: The evolution of empathy. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 279-300. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093625
de Waal, F. B. M., Leimgruber, K., & Greenberg, A. R. (2008). Giving is self-rewarding for monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 13685-13689. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807060105
de Waal, F. B. M. & Pokorny, J. J. (2008). Faces and behinds: Chimpanzee sex perception. Advanced Science Letters, 1, 99-103. doi:10.1166/asl.2008.006

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2007

Bonnie, K. E. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Copying without rewards: Socially influenced foraging decisions among brown capuchin monkeys. Animal Cognition, 10, 283-292. doi:10.1007/s10071-006-0069-9
Bonnie, K. E., Horner, V., Whiten, A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: A controlled experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 274, 367-372. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3733
de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). With a little help from a friend. PLoS Biology, 5, e190. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050190
Dindo, M. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Partner effects on food consumption in brown capuchin monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 69, 1-9. doi:10.1002/ajp.20362
Flack, J. C. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Context modulates signal meaning in primate communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 1581-1586. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603565104
Horner, V. & Whiten, A. (2007). Learning from others' mistakes? Limits on understanding a trap-tube task by young chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 121, 12-21. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.121.1.12
Pollick, A. S. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Ape gestures and language evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 8184-9189. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702624104
van Wolkenten, M., Brosnan, S. F., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Inequity responses of monkeys modified by effort. Proceeedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 18855-18859. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707182104
Whiten, A., Spiteri, A., Horner, V., Bonnie, K. E., Lambeth, S. P., Schapiro, S. J., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2007). Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groups. Current Biology, 17, 1038-1043. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.05.031

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2006

Bonnie, K. E. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2006). Affiliation promotes the transmission of a social custom: Handclasp grooming among captive chimpanzees. Primates, 47, 27-34. doi:10.1007/s10329-005-0141-0
Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2006a). A cross-species perspective on the selfishness axiom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 818. doi:10.1017/S0140525X05240141
Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2006b). Partial support from a nonreplication: Comment on Roma, Silberberg, Ruggiero, and Suomi (2006). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120, 74-75. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.120.1.74
Brosnan, S. F., Freeman, C., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2006). Partner's behavior, not reward distribution, determines success in an unequal cooperative task in capuchin monkeys. American Journal of Primatology, 68, 713-724. doi:10.1002/ajp.20261
de Waal, F. B. M. (2006). Joint ventures require joint payoffs: Fairness among primates. Social Research, 73, 349-364.
Flack, J. C., Girvan, M., de Waal, F. B. M., & Krakauer, D. C. (2006). Policing stabilizes construction of social niches in primates. Nature, 439, 426-429. doi:10.1038/nature04326
Horner, V., Whiten, A., Flynn, E., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2006). Faithful replication of foraging techniques along cultural transmission chains by chimpanzees and children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 13878-13883. doi:10.1073/pnas.0606015103
Plotnik, J. M., de Waal, F. B. M., & Reiss, D. (2006). Self-recognition in an Asian elephant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 17053-17057. doi:10.1073/pnas.0608062103
van Wolkenten, M. L., Davis, J. M., Gong, M. L., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2006). Coping with acute crowding by Cebus apella. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 1241-1256. doi:10.1007/s10764-006-9070-z

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2005

Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Responses to a simple barter task in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Primates, 46, 173-182. doi:10.1007/s10329-005-0125-0
Brosnan, S. F., Schiff, H. C., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Tolerance for inequity increases with social closeness in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 253-258. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2947
de Waal, F. B. M. (2005a). A century of getting to know the chimpanzee. Nature, 437, 56-59. doi:10.1007/s10329-005-0125-0
de Waal, F. B. M. (2005b). How animals do business. Scientific American, 292, 72-79. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0405-72
de Waal, F. B. M. (2005c, October 8). The empathic ape. New Scientist, 52-54.
de Waal, F. B. M., Dindo, M., Freeman, C. A., & Hall, M. J. (2005). The monkey in the mirror: Hardly a stranger. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 11140-11147. doi:10.1073/pnas.0503935102
Flack, J. C., de Waal, F. B. M, & Krakauer, D. C. (2005). Social structure, robustness, and policing cost in a cognitively sophisticated species. American Naturalist, 165, E126-E139. doi:10.1086/429277
Flack, J. C., Krakauer, D. C., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Robustness mechanisms in primate societies: A perturbation study. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 272, 1091-1099. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.3019
Horner, V., Bonnie, K. E., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Identifying the motivations of chimpanzees: Culture and collaboration. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 704-705. doi:10.1017/S0140525X05360122
Horner, V. & Whiten, A. (2005). Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens). Animal Cognition, 8, 164-181. doi:10.1007/s10071-004-0239-6
Parr, L. A., Cohen, M., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). The influence of social context on the use of blended and graded facial displays in chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology, 26, 73-104. doi:10.1007/s10764-005-0724-z
Pollick, A. S., Gouzoules, H., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Audience effects on food calls in captive brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Animal Behaviour, 70, 1273-1281. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.03.007
Whiten, A., Horner, V., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2005). Conformity to cultural norms of tool use in chimpanzees. Nature, 437, 737-740. doi:10.1038/nature04047

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2004

Brosnan S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2004a). A concept of value during experimental exchange in brown capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Folia primatologica, 75, 317-330. doi:10.1159/000080209
Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2004b). Socially learned preferences for differentially rewarded tokens in the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 133-139. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.118.2.133
de Waal, F. B. M. (2004). Evolutionary ethics, aggression, and violence: Lessons from primate research. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 32, 18-23. doi:10.1111/j.1748-720X.2004.tb00444.x
Flack, J. C., Jeannotte, L. A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2004). Play signaling and the perception of social rules by juvenile chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 149-159. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.118.2.149
Vokey, J. R., Rendall, D., Tangen, J. M., Parr, L. A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2004). Visual kin recognition and family resemblance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 194-199. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.118.2.194
Weaver, A. C., Richardson, R., Worlein, J., de Waal, F. B. M., & Laudenslager, M. (2004). Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences. American Journal of Primatology, 62, 243-259. doi:10.1002/ajp.20019

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2003

Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2003). Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature, 425, 297-299. doi:10.1038/nature01963
de Waal, F. B. M. (2003a). Darwin's legacy and the study of primate visual communication. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 7-31. doi:10.1196/annals.1280.003
de Waal, F. B. M. (2003b). Social roles, alternative strategies, personalities, and other sources of individual variation in monkeys and apes. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 541-542. doi:10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00501-9
de Waal, F. B. M. & Davis, J. M. (2003). Capuchin cognitive ecology: Cooperation based on projected returns. Neuropsychologia, 41, 221-228. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(02)00152-5
Plotnik, J., Nelson, P. A., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2003). Visual field information in the face perception of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 94-98. doi:10.1196/annals.1280.020
Weaver, A. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2003). The mother-offspring relationship as a template in social development: Reconciliation in brown capuchins (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 117, 101-110. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.117.1.101

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2002

Brosnan, S. F. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). A proximate perspective on reciprocal altruism. Human Nature, 13, 129-152. doi:10.1007/s12110-002-1017-2
Call, J., Aureli, F., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Postconflict third-party affiliation in stumptailed macaques. Animal Behavior, 63, 209-216. doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1908
de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Evolutionary psychology: The wheat and the chaff. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 187-191. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00197
Preston, S. D. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25, 1-71. doi:10.1017/S0140525X02000018
Preuschoft, S., Wang, W., Aureli, F., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Reconciliation in captive chimpanzees: A reevaluation with controlled methods. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 29-50. doi:10.1023/A:1013293623158
Weaver, A. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). An index of relationship quality based on attachment theory. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 116, 93-106. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.116.1.93

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2001

Cooper, M. A., Bernstein, I. S., Fragaszy, D. M., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2001). Integration of new males into four social groups of tufted capuchins (Cebus apella). International Journal of Primatology, 22, 663-683.
Seres, M., Aureli, F., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2001). Successful formation of a large chimpanzee group out of two preexisting subgroups. Zoo Biology, 20, 501-515. doi:10.1002/zoo.10003

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2000

de Waal, F. B. M. (2000a). Attitudinal reciprocity in food sharing among brown capuchin monkeys. Animal Behaviour, 60, 253-261. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1471
de Waal, F. B. M. (2000b). Primates—A natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science, 289, 586-590.
de Waal, F. B. M., Aureli, F., & Judge, P. G. (2000). Coping with crowding. Scientific American, 282, 76-81.
de Waal, F. B. M. & Berger, M. L. (2000). Payment for labour in monkeys. Nature, 404, 563-563. doi:10.1038/35007138
Flack, J. C., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2000). ‘Any animal whatever’: Darwinian building blocks of morality in monkeys and apes. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7, 1-29.
Mendres, K. A. & de Waal, F. B. M. (2000). Capuchins do cooperate: The advantage of an intuitive task. Animal Behaviour, 60, 523-529.
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